Preprints

There are 1479 Preprints listed.

Switching to bioplastics may exacerbate ingestion of lost and discarded fishing gear by marine invertebrates

Sandra Powell, Benjamin Mos

Published: 2024-01-09
Subjects: Animal Experimentation and Research, Biology, Environmental Health Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Sustainability

Bioplastics are argued to be more environmentally sustainable than conventional plastics. Yet, little is known about how bioplastics degrade in marine environments or their likelihood of being ingested by animals. We measured changes in the weight of biodegradable, semi-biodegradable, and non-biodegradable fishing gears (soft plastic lures, SPLs) in or out of seawater over 14 days. We then [...]

An integrated open population distance sampling approach for modelling age-structured populations

Erlend Birkeland Nilsen, Chloé R. Nater

Published: 2024-01-09
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Population Biology

Estimation of abundance and demographic rates for populations of wild species is a challenging but fundamental issue for both management and research into ecology and evolution. One set of approaches that has been used extensively to estimate abundance of wildlife populations is Distance Sampling (DS) methods for line or point transect survey data. Historically, DS models were only available as [...]

The rarity of Invertebrates prevents reliable application of IUCN Red-List criteria.

Robert Goodsell, Ayco Tack, Fredrik Ronquist, et al.

Published: 2024-01-04
Subjects: Life Sciences

Among the most widely used information underpinning international conservation efforts is the IUCN Red List of endangered species. The Red List designates species extinction risk based on geographic range, population size, or declines in either. However, the Red-List has poor representation of invertebrates which comprise the majority of animal diversity, and it has frequently been questioned [...]

Solving the “small outbreak problem” in climate epidemiology

Colin J Carlson

Published: 2024-01-04
Subjects: Climate, Diseases, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Parasitic Diseases, Public Health, Virus Diseases

Climate change can cause outbreaks of infectious diseases in unfamiliar locations — but how do we know which unusual outbreaks are the result of climate change? Scientists often hesitate to guess, leaving the task to journalists or the public. All of these audiences would benefit from a clear and consistent framework for thinking about causality, especially in situations where outbreaks are too [...]

House sparrows as sentinels of childhood lead exposure

Max M Gillings, Riccardo Ton, Tiarne Harris, et al.

Published: 2024-01-04
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Our understanding of connections between human and animal health has advanced substantially since the canary was introduced as a sentinel of toxic conditions in coal mines. Nonetheless, development of wildlife sentinels for monitoring human exposure to toxins has been limited. Here, we capitalised on a three-decade long child blood lead monitoring program (> 20,000 measurements), to [...]

The meaning and measure of concordance factors in phylogenomics

Rob Lanfear, Matthew Hahn

Published: 2024-01-03
Subjects: Evolution

As phylogenomic datasets have grown in size, researchers have developed new ways to measure biological variation and to assess statistical support. Larger datasets have many more sites and many more loci, and therefore less sampling variance. While this means that we can more accurately measure the mean signal in these datasets. the lower sampling variance is often reflected in widely used [...]

Quantifying heritability of the environment using animal models: a case study

Gabriel Munar-Delgado, Marion Nicolaus, Christiaan Both, et al.

Published: 2024-01-03
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Evolutionary ecology has traditionally studied how natural selection shapes the phenotypes of individuals in response to their environment, which increases population fitness. It is also well known how habitat choice can affect individual local adaptation. However, recent work has highlighted the incompleteness of the link between habitat choice and its evolutionary consequences. By treating the [...]

Experimental rapid and small-scale ecological population divergence in the absence of current natural selection

Gabriel Munar-Delgado, Paula Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, et al.

Published: 2024-01-02
Subjects: Life Sciences

Adaptive divergence has long been a core topic in the field of evolutionary biology, with natural selection traditionally considered its only driver. Here we focus on the ability of matching habitat choice to generate population divergence and reproductive isolation. This alternative mechanism of divergence considers that individuals choose their habitats based on an evaluation of the ecological [...]

Performance-dependent movement: An alternative driver of adaptive divergence

Gabriel Munar-Delgado, Francisco Pulido, Pim Edelaar

Published: 2024-01-02
Subjects: Life Sciences

It is a tenet of evolutionary biology that local adaptation is driven by natural selection, while it is hindered by gene flow. This is because random movements between populations disrupt the match between phenotype and the local environment. However, if individuals moved to the environments where they have higher ecological performance, movements between populations could facilitate local [...]

The Role of Pollination Services in Seed Production: A review

Falk Krumbe, Simone Melder, Arndt Feuerbacher

Published: 2023-12-28
Subjects: Life Sciences

In the face of declining insect biodiversity, this study reviews the critical role of pollination services in seed production of food crops. Insects, as pollinators, play a fundamental role in the reproductive processes of both wild and domesticated plants, impacting global agriculture. While previous reviews have assessed the influence of pollinators on primary food production, this review [...]

Integrating multiple datasets to align biological and statistical populations for abundance estimation

Michelle L Kissling, Paul Lukacs, Kelly Nesvacil, et al.

Published: 2023-12-28
Subjects: Life Sciences

Ideally, a statistical population is the same as, or accurately represents its corresponding biological population. However, in practice, they rarely align in space and time, which can lead to variable exposure to sampling and biased inference. We often view a population mismatch as a temporary emigration process and resolve it with replicate and/or repeat sampling, though this approach is not [...]

Biogeographical diet variation within and between the rabbitfishes Siganus corallinus, Siganus virgatus, Siganus doliatus and Siganus trispilos

Salvador Zarco-Perello, Andrew Hoey, Storm Martin

Published: 2023-12-27
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Feeding habits of herbivorous fish play an important role in the form and function of coastal marine ecosystems. Rabbitfishes (Siganidae) have been recognized as important consumers of macroalgae in the coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. However, it is unclear how their diet varies among and within species at biogeographical scales. The present study assessed the inter- and intra-specific [...]

Smart Solutions, Big Returns: Closing Biodiversity Knowledge Gaps with Digital Agriculture

Ruben Remelgado, Vítězslav Moudrý, Elisa Padulosi, et al.

Published: 2023-12-23
Subjects: Agriculture, Biodiversity

The global expansion and intensification of food production threaten biodiversity, vital for ecosystem services and food security. The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) advocates drastic changes in agricultural management, yet translating recommendations into local action is challenging. Biodiversity-friendly practices carry highly uncertain benefits, dissuading their adoption. [...]

Untangling the complex food webs of tropical rainforest streams

Victor Satoru Saito, Pavel Kratina, Gedimar Barbosa, et al.

Published: 2023-12-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

1- Describing food webs with precision and detail is critical for understanding the functioning of ecosystems. Streams in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest stand out as one of the most threatened ecosystems worldwide and yet, little is known about whether these systems house stable food webs and what are the trophic properties associated with that. 2 - In this study, we applied a Bayesian [...]

Bird life history traits influence the diversity of their associated microbiomes

Corey T Callaghan, Stephanie D Jurburg

Published: 2023-12-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Background: The avian microbiome plays an essential role in host development, health, and behavior, but while microbiomes of captive birds have been extensively studied, little is known about how life history traits influence the resident microbial diversity of individuals and of species in wild birds. Host traits may shape their associated microbiomes by modulating the exposure of the host to [...]

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