There are 994 Preprints listed.

Evolutionary walks through flower color space driven by gene expression in Petunia and allies (Petunieae)

Lucas C Wheeler, Amy Dunbar-Wallis, Kyle Schutz, et al.

Published: 2023-02-03
Subjects: Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

The structure and function of biochemical and developmental pathways determine the range of accessible phenotypes, which are the substrate for evolutionary change. Accordingly, we expect that observed phenotypic variation across species is strongly influenced by pathway structure, with different phenotypes arising due to changes in activity along pathway branches. Here we use flower color as a [...]

The impact of helping on helper life-history and fitness in a cooperatively breeding bird

Ellie Chesterton, Alexandra M Sparks, Terry Burke, et al.

Published: 2023-02-03
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Cooperative breeding occurs when helpers provide alloparental care to the offspring of a breeding pair. One hypothesis of why helping occurs is that helpers gain valuable experience (skills) that may increase their own future reproductive success. However, research typically focuses on the effect of helping on short-term measures of reproductive success. Fewer studies have considered how helping [...]

Bacterial multicellular behavior in antiviral defense

Tom Luthe, Larissa Kever, Kai Thormann, et al.

Published: 2023-02-02
Subjects: Life Sciences

Multicellular behaviour benefits seemingly simple organisms such as bacteria, by improving nutrient uptake, resistance to stresses or by providing advantages in predatory interactions. Several recent studies have shown that this also extends to the defense against bacteriophages, which are omnipresent in almost all habitats. In this review, we summarize strategies conferring protection against [...]

The advertisement call of Mannophryne lamarcai Mijares-Urrutia et Arends 1999 (Anura: Dendrobatidae)

Arlene Cardozo-Urdaneta, Ada Sánchez-Mercado

Published: 2023-01-31
Subjects: Life Sciences

The genus Mannophryne includes 19 described species from Venezuela and two species from Trinidad and Tobago. We described for the first time the advertisement call of Mannophryne lamarcai, an endemic and Critically Endangered species from the Cerro Socopó at western Venezuela. M. lamarcai was spatially restricted in appropriate habitats. Males were calling actively on top of rocks and fallen [...]

Using repeatability of performance within and across contexts to validate measures of behavioral flexibility

Kelsey McCune

Published: 2023-01-31
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Research into animal cognitive abilities is increasing quickly and often uses methods where behavioral performance on a task is assumed to represent variation in the underlying cognitive trait. However, because these methods rely on behavioral responses as a proxy for cognitive ability, it is important to validate that the task structure does, in fact, target the cognitive trait of interest [...]

Virtual Reef Diver: enabling people to help protect the Great Barrier Reef

Julie Vercelloni, Edgar Santos Fernandez, Kerrie Mengersen

Published: 2023-01-27
Subjects: Life Sciences

Two Sustainable Development Goals are focused directly on combating the impacts of climate change on coral reef communities. These are: providing cost-effective and timely information to reef managers (SDG 13 - climate action) and sustaining healthy coral reefs in the future (SDG 14 - life below water). Citizen science (CS) features prominently in a range of programs that have been developed to [...]

Determinants of synergistic cell-cell interactions in bacteria

Benedikt Pauli, Shiksha Ajmera, Christian Kost

Published: 2023-01-27
Subjects: Life Sciences

Bacteria are ubiquitous and colonize virtually every conceivable habitat on earth. To achieve this, bacteria require different metabolites and biochemical capabilities. Rather than trying to produce all of the needed materials by themselves, bacteria have evolved a range of synergistic interactions, in which they exchange different commodities with other members of their local community. While it [...]

Fine-scale interplay between decline and growth determines the spatial recovery of coral communities within a reef

Julie Vercelloni, Chris Roelfsema, Eva Kovacs, et al.

Published: 2023-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

As coral reefs endure increasing levels of disturbance, understanding patterns of recovery following disturbance(s) is paramount to assessing the sustainability of these ecosystems. Given the slow dynamics of coral reefs and the increasing frequency of environmental pressures, management strategies focus on understanding recovery patterns to drive efforts and actively promote the recovery of key [...]

More Than Half of Statistically Significant Research Findings in the Environmental Sciences are Actually Not

Teshome Deressa, David Stern, Jaco Vangronsveld, et al.

Published: 2023-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Researchers have incentives to search for and selectively report findings that appear to be statistically significant and/or conform to prior beliefs. Such selective reporting practices, including p-hacking and publication bias, can lead to a distorted set of results being published, potentially undermining the process of knowledge accumulation and evidence-based decision making. We take stock of [...]

Meta-community processes supersede leaf subsidy effects on lake aquatic communities

Georges Etienne Charette, Éric Harvey

Published: 2023-01-24
Subjects: Life Sciences

There is a growing consensus that cross-ecosystem fluxes significantly influence the structure and stability of aquatic communities. What remains unclear, however, is the relative importance and potential interactions of those fluxes to/with other well-studied factors affecting aquatic community structure such as local environmental parameters or regional-scale influences related to connectivity [...]

The impact of rising temperatures on the prevalence of coral diseases and its predictability: a global meta-analysis

Samantha Burke, Patrice Pottier, Malgorzata Lagisz, et al.

Published: 2023-01-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Statistical Models

Coral reefs are under threat from disease as climate change alters environmental conditions. Rising temperatures exacerbate coral disease, but this relationship is likely complex as other factors also influence coral disease prevalence. To better understand this relationship, we meta-analytically examined 108 studies for changes in global coral disease over time alongside temperature, expressed [...]

Marine cleaning mutualisms provide new insights in biological market dynamics

Redouan Bshary, Ronald Noe

Published: 2023-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Most mutually beneficial social interactions (cooperation within species, mutualism between species) involve some degree of partner choice. In an analogy to economic theory as applied to human trading practices, biological market theory (BMT) focusses on how partner choice affects payoff distributions among non-human traders. BMT has inspired a great diversity of research, including research on [...]

Why do some fish grow faster than others?

Harriet Rose Goodrich, Timothy D Clark

Published: 2023-01-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Biology, Physiology

All animals must acquire food to grow, but there is a vast diversity in how different species and even different individuals approach and achieve this task. Individuals within a species appear to fall along a bold-shy continuum, whereby some fish acquire food aggressively and with seemingly high risk, while others appear more submissive and opportunistic. Greater food consumption generally [...]

When habitat is lost matters: patterns of population decline and time to extinction in a seasonal, density-dependent model

Joseph Burant, D. Ryan Norris

Published: 2023-01-20
Subjects: Population Biology

Nearly all wild populations live in seasonal environments in which they experience regular fluctuations in environmental conditions that drive population dynamics. Recent empirical evidence from experimental populations of fruit flies suggests that demographic signals inherent in the counts of seasonal populations, including reproduction and survival, can indicate when in the annual cycle habitat [...]

Sex-specific covariation between exploratory behavior and natal dispersal strategies in a natural cooperative breeding passerine population

Tara Cox, Alexandra M Sparks, Terry Burke, et al.

Published: 2023-01-20
Subjects: Life Sciences

Natal dispersal is a major life-history strategy that has pervasive consequences on the spatial and genetic structure of populations. Between-individual variation in personality traits is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of natal dispersal via ‘personality-dependent dispersal’. However, few studies have investigated the importance of personalities in the context of delayed [...]


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