There are 1093 Preprints listed.

Post-fire reference densities for giant sequoia seedlings

Nathan Stephenson, Anthony Caprio, David Soderberg, et al.

Published: 2023-06-01
Subjects: Life Sciences

In some areas burned by recent wildfires, most or all giant sequoias were killed. Sequoia managers wish to know whether post-fire seedling establishment in those areas has been adequate to regenerate the locally extirpated sequoias. To provide a yardstick for interpreting sequoia seedling densities measured after the recent severe wildfires, here we calculate mean seedling densities measured [...]

Welcoming more participation in open data science for the oceans

Alexa Fredston, Julia Stewart Lowndes

Published: 2023-05-31
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Marine Biology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Open science is a global movement happening across all research fields. It builds on years of efforts by individual researchers and a broad array of institutions, agencies, and grassroots organizations. Enabled by technology and the open web, the goal is to share knowledge and broaden participation in science, from team formation and early ideation to making intermediate and final research [...]

Predicting Bird Diversity with Lidar-derived Vegetation Structure in an African Savanna

Peter Boucher, Andrew Davies

Published: 2023-05-31
Subjects: Life Sciences

Vegetation structural complexity and the diversity of animal communities are closely linked in vegetated ecosystems. These structure-diversity relationships have the potential to be used to predict biodiversity at large spatial scales using remote sensing data. However, structure-diversity relationships may not be generalizable across different ecosystems or even across ecotypes within a single [...]

Trophic interaction models predict interactions across space, not food webs

Dominique Caron, Ulrich Brose, Miguel Lurgi, et al.

Published: 2023-05-30
Subjects: Biology

Aim: Trophic interactions are central to our understanding of essential ecosystem functions as well as their stability. Predicting these interactions has become increasingly common due to the lack of empirical data on trophic interactions for most taxa in most ecosystems. We aim to determine whether and how accurately we can extrapolate to new communities both in terms of pairwise predator-prey [...]

The trade-off between vocal learning and dexterity: a balancing act

Pedro Tiago Martins, Cedric Boeckx

Published: 2023-05-30
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Behavioral Neurobiology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Uncontroversial evidence of vocal production learning, the capacity to modify vocal output on the basis of experience, is sparsely distributed in the animal kingdom. We suggest that this is in large part due to a trade-off between vocal learning complexity and a much more widely distributed trait—non-vocal dexterity. We argue that given some generally required neural and anatomical conditions for [...]

Predation and biophysical context control long-term carcass nutrient inputs in an Andean ecosystem

Julia D. Monk, Emiliano Donadio, Justine A. Smith, et al.

Published: 2023-05-30
Subjects: Desert Ecology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Zoology

Animal carcass decomposition is an often-overlooked component of nutrient cycles. The importance of carcass decomposition for increasing nutrient availability has been demonstrated in several ecosystems, but impacts in arid lands are poorly understood. In a protected high desert landscape in Argentina, puma predation of vicuñas is a main driver of carcass distribution. Here, we sampled puma kill [...]

Context matters when rewilding for climate change

Mary Burak, Kristy Ferraro, Kaggie Orrick, et al.

Published: 2023-05-30
Subjects: Life Sciences

There is a cross-sectoral push amongst conservation practitioners to simultaneously mitigate biodiversity loss and climate change, especially as the latter increasingly threatens the former. Growing evidence demonstrates that animals can have substantial impacts on carbon cycling and as such, there are increasing calls to use animal conservation and trophic rewilding to help dually overcome [...]

Breaking the Ice: A Review of Phages in Polar Ecosystems

Mara Elena Heinrichs, Gonçalo J Piedade, Ovidiu Popa, et al.

Published: 2023-05-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Microbiology

Bacteriophages, or phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacterial hosts, playing a significant role in regulating microbial populations and ecosystem dynamics. However, phages from extreme environments such as polar regions remain relatively understudied due to challenges like restricted ecosystem access and low biomass. Understanding the diversity, structure, and functions of [...]

Assessing giant sequoia mortality and regeneration following high severity wildfire

David Soderberg, Adrian Das, Nathan Stephenson, et al.

Published: 2023-05-26
Subjects: Life Sciences

Fire is a critical driver of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) regeneration. However, fire suppression combined with the effects of increased temperature and severe drought have resulted in fires of an intensity and size outside of the historical norm. As a result, recent mega-fires have killed a significant portion of the world’s sequoia population (13 to 19%), and [...]

Light wavelength and pulsing frequency affect avoidance responses of Canada geese

RYAN B LUNN, Patrice Baumhardt, Bradley Blackwell, et al.

Published: 2023-05-25
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause bird mortality, economic damage, and aviation safety hazards. One proposed solution to increasing the distance at which birds detect and move away from an approaching aircraft, ultimately mitigating the probability of collision, is through onboard lighting systems. Lights in vehicles have been shown to lead to earlier reactions in some bird species but [...]

Content analysis of nature documentaries in China: challenges and opportunities to raise public conservation awareness

Haonan Wei, Violeta Berdejo-Espinola, Tatsuya Amano, et al.

Published: 2023-05-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

1.     In the Anthropocene, the general public is a key part of biodiversity conservation since several aspects of their daily life are inevitably linked to major threats to biodiversity. It is thus important to improve their conservation awareness. While a growing body of research has demonstrated the potential of English-language nature documentaries to raise public conservation awareness, [...]

Combining the resurrection approach with transplant experiments to investigate adaptation of plant populations to environmental change

Pascal Karitter, Martí March-Salas, Andreas Ensslin, et al.

Published: 2023-05-25
Subjects: Evolution, Plant Sciences, Population Biology

Recent climatic changes, such as more frequent droughts and heatwaves, can lead to rapid evolutionary adaptations in plant populations. Such rapid evolution can be investigated using the resurrection approach by comparing plants raised from stored ancestral and contemporary seeds from the same population. This approach has so far only been used in common garden experiments, allowing to reveal [...]

A Perspective on Conservation and Development

Charudutt Mishra, Ranjini Murali, Bayarjargal Agvaantseren, et al.

Published: 2023-05-25
Subjects: Biodiversity, Community-based Research, Demography, Population, and Ecology, Environmental Studies, Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Physical and Environmental Geography

Since the industrial revolution, the predominant model of economic development has involved economies of scale and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, leading to environmental degradation and the ongoing mass extinction of species. The environmental impacts of this development-for(the sake of)-development model led to biodiversity conservation efforts that can be described as [...]

Apes and Agriculture

Erik Meijaard, Nabillah Unus, Thina Ariffin, et al.

Published: 2023-05-22
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Environmental Studies, Zoology

Non-human great apes – chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos, and orangutans – are threatened by agricultural expansion particularly from rice, cacao, cassava, maize, and oil palm cultivation. Agriculture replaces and fragments great ape habitats, bringing them closer to humans and often resulting in conflict. Though the impact of agriculture on great apes is well-recognized, there is still a need for [...]

The great escape: patterns of enemy release are not explained by time, space, or climate

Zoe Xirocostas, Jeff Ollerton, Riin Tamme, et al.

Published: 2023-05-22
Subjects: Life Sciences

When a plant is introduced to a new ecosystem it may escape from some of its coevolved herbivores. Reduced herbivore damage, and the ability of introduced plants to allocate resources from defence to growth and reproduction can increase the success of introduced species. This mechanism is known as enemy release and is known to occur in some species and situations, but not in others. Understanding [...]


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