Preprints

There are 1623 Preprints listed.

Climate-mediated hybridization and the future of Andean forests

Ellen Quinlan, Craig A. Layman, Miles R Silman

Published: 2024-06-04
Subjects: Life Sciences

The tropical Andes face unprecedented warming and shifting precipitation patterns due to climate change and land-use alteration, challenging the futures of Andean forests. During the Quaternary, many Andean trees responded to climate change through upslope migrations, but while there is evidence of ongoing upslope migrations in many species, they are at rates far below what is need to remain in [...]

Supporting study registration to reduce research waste

Marija Purgar, Paul Glasziou, Tin Klanjscek, et al.

Published: 2024-06-04
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Research suffers from many inefficiencies. These lead to much research being avoidably wasted, with no or limited value to the end user (e.g. an estimated 82-89% of ecological research, and 85% of medical research). Here, we argue that the quality and impact of ecological research could be drastically improved by registration: pre-registration, and registered reports. However, without a [...]

IPDToolkit: An R package for simulation and Bayesian analysis of iterated prisoner’s dilemma game-play under third-party arbitration

Cody Ross, Thomas Fikes, Hillary Lenfesty, et al.

Published: 2024-06-03
Subjects: Anthropology, Political Science, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Recently, researchers have begun studying the role that third-party arbitration may play in the evolution of cooperation. Using the iterated prisoner’s dilemma (IPD), they show that arbitration can mitigate the negative effects of perception errors on the stability of cooperative strategies. Open questions, both theoretical and empirical, however, remain. To promote research on the role of [...]

Hunter-Gatherer Sociality and the Origins of Human Normative Thinking

Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius

Published: 2024-06-03
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Reconstructing the origin and evolution of culturally transmitted norms and institutions in the hominin lineage since our split from a common ancestry with African apes is a daunting task. By investigating the social structures of extant simple hunter-gatherers, as well as the evidence of extensive social networks and long-distance trade in early modern humans, we believe that regulation of [...]

Familiarity with social partners influences affiliative interactions but not spatial associations

Claire L. O'Connell, Annemarie van der Marel, Elizabeth A Hobson

Published: 2024-05-31
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology

To successfully navigate complex social environments, animals must manage their relationships with familiar group members and strangers introduced via fission-fusion or demographic processes by deciding who, how often, and when to interact. However, it is not clear how animals balance the risks and benefits of interacting with familiar and stranger conspecifics. We studied whether familiarity [...]

Eco-evolutionary dynamics in grasslands during land use change: consequences for plant-microbe interactions and ecosystem function

Jenalle L. Eck, Tsipe Aavik, Kadri Koorem, et al.

Published: 2024-05-31
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

1. Land use change can cause the loss of plant species and functional diversity, but whether it drives eco-evolutionary changes within plant species is unclear. 2. Semi-natural grasslands are particularly threatened by land use change, including management intensification on productive soils and abandonment on marginal land. As such, they serve as an excellent system for exploring if and how [...]

Species- and community-level demographic responses of saplings to drought during tropical secondary succession

Hao Ran Lai, Alexander W Cheeseman, Jefferson S. Hall, et al.

Published: 2024-05-31
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Forest Biology, Plant Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Naturally regenerating secondary vegetation dominates the tropical forest landscapes, showing a remarkable capacity to sequester carbon, but such a role is threatened by increasing drought predicted with climate change. To understand how secondary forest species and communities respond to drought, we leverage a long-term chronosequence of tropical successional forests from Central Panama that [...]

Evolutionary principles underpinning codon usage bias: patterns, functions, and mechanisms

Alexander Lloyd Cope, Michael A. Gilchrist, Premal Shah, et al.

Published: 2024-05-30
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Synonymous codons are used unevenly despite coding for the same amino acid. Recent work has provided critical insights into the functions, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of codon usage bias and synonymous mutations. However, experiments aimed at understanding the role of synonymous mutations often involve only a small number of reporter genes. How do these observations generalize across [...]

Methods to identify silk gland activation patterns in spider spinning behaviours

Maitry M Jani, Martín Ramírez, Jonas Wolff

Published: 2024-05-30
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Animal Studies, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Spiders possess multiple types of silk glands, producing silk materials with contrasting properties, and which are deployed in distinct behavioural contexts, such as locomotion, prey capture and egg casing. Whereas the diversity of silk glands and spigots across different spider families is relatively well described, their biological functions (i.e., with which behaviour each gland type is [...]

Cladistic species definitions can lead to under-representation of biodiversity from adaptive radiations

George Francis Turner

Published: 2024-05-30
Subjects: Life Sciences

Many species are paraphyletic, but current taxonomic practices often do not recognise this, and attempts are made to apply a monophyletic species concept. While allowing the recognition of ecomorphologically equivalent, or even phenotypically indistinguishable allopatric taxa as species, this often leads to combining distinctive local forms (such as cave-adapted populations) or even whole [...]

The role of large language models in interdisciplinary research: opportunities, challenges, and ways forward

Christos Mammides, Harris Papadopoulos

Published: 2024-05-27
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

1. Large language models (LLMs) are gaining importance in research as they offer many benefits. One often overlooked benefit is their potential to facilitate and support interdisciplinary research, which is key to addressing current global challenges, such as the twin crises of biodiversity loss and climate change. 2. LMMs can help reduce the costs associated with knowledge transfer and bridge [...]

Poor hypotheses and research waste in biology: learning from a theory crisis in psychology

Shinichi Nakagawa, David W Armitage, Tom Froese, et al.

Published: 2024-05-27
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

While psychologists have extensively discussed a ‘theory crisis’, there has been no debate about such a crisis in biology. However, biologists, especially those working in the fields of ecology and evolution, have long discussed communication failures between theoreticians and empiricists. We argue such failure is one aspect of a theory crisis because misapplied and misunderstood [...]

Navigating phylogenetic conflict and evolutionary inference in plants with target capture data

Elizabeth M Joyce, Alexander N Schmidt-Lebuhn, Harvey K Orel, et al.

Published: 2024-05-27
Subjects: Bioinformatics, Biology, Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Target capture has quickly become a preferred approach for plant systematic and evolutionary research, marking a step-change in the generation of data for phylogenetic inference. While this advancement has facilitated the resolution of many phylogenetic relationships, phylogenetic conflict continues to be reported, and often attributed to genome duplication, reticulation, deep coalescence or [...]

Multiple Disturbances, Multiple Legacies: Fire, Canopy Gaps, and Deer Jointly Change the Forest Seed Bank

Samuel Powers Reed, Alejandro A Royo, Walter P Carson, et al.

Published: 2024-05-27
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

The manipulation of pre-colonial disturbances in U.S. forests can play a critical role in determining ecological composition, structure, and function. However, our understanding of how concurrent disturbances influence non-tree species is extremely limited in forests. To this end, we used a long-term, multi-disturbance experiment in an oak dominated forest in West Virginia, U.S.A. that [...]

Is the audience gender-blind? Smaller audience in female talks highlights prestige differences in academia

Júlia Rodrigues Barreto, Isabella Romitelli, Pamela Cristina Santana, et al.

Published: 2024-05-27
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Evolution, Gender Equity in Education, Higher Education, Inequality and Stratification, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Psychological Phenomena and Processes

Although diverse perspectives are fundamental for fostering and advancing science, power relations have limited the development, propagation of ideas, and recognition of minority groups in academia. Gender bias is one of the most well-documented processes, leading women to drop out of their academic careers due to fewer opportunities and lower prestige. Using long-term data (2008-2019) on talks [...]

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