Preprints

There are 952 Preprints listed.

Typification of plants illustrated by Feuillée: a reply to Zanotti et al.

Mark Alan Hershkovitz

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Biodiversity

ABSTRACT: Zanotti et al. (2022a) lectotypified Gnaphalium viravira Feuillée ex Molina with its illustration in Feuillée (1725). They concluded that this illustration qualified as original material seen by Molina (1782). However, Hershkovitz (2020a, b) had concluded that Molina had not seen any of the illustrations in Feuillée (1725), thus none qualify as original material for taxa he validly [...]

Few studies of wild animal performance account for parasite infections: a systematic review

Emmanuelle Chrétien, Jeremy De Bonville, Joëlle Guitard, et al.

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Wild animals have parasites. This inconvenient truth has far-reaching implications for biologists measuring animal performance traits: infection with parasites can alter host behaviour and physiology in profound and sometimes counterintuitive ways. Yet, to what extent do studies on wild animals take individual infection status into account? 2. We performed a systematic review across eight [...]

High cryptic diversity in a caddisfly that co-occurs in lakes and streams

Christine Ann Parisek, Michael P Marchetti, Matthew R Cover

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Lake and stream fauna are frequently studied, yet surprisingly little is known about ecological and evolutionary dynamics of species that inhabit both lentic and lotic habitats. There are few examples of species co-occurring in the different habitat flow types, which raises questions on how this may impact their ability to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The aquatic insect Limnephilus [...]

A Review: Comparative Genomics and Physiology of Parity Mode Evolution in Amniotes

Maggs X

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Life Sciences

Across amniotes, squamates represent the only clade with highly variable parity modes, oviparity (egg-laying) and viviparity (live-birth). Despite this, relatively little is known about how oviparity and viviparity evolve at the genomic and physiological levels in squamates. Within the context of interdisciplinary medical, poultry science, and reproductive biology literature, I review the [...]

Misrepresenting biases in arrival: a comment on Svensson (2022)

Alejandro Cano, Alejandro Couce, Joanna Masel, et al.

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

The idea that adaptive change is subject to biases in variation by a "first come, first served" dynamic is not part of classic evolutionary reasoning. Yet, predictable effects of biases in the introduction of variation have been reported in models of population genetics, in laboratory evolution, and in retrospective analyses of natural adaptation. This effect of "arrival bias" has potentially [...]

Rethinking convergence in plant parasitism integrating molecular and population genetic processes

Liming Cai

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

The need for photosynthesis has largely shaped the body plan, physiology, as well as gene repertoire of seed plants. However, shifts to a heterotrophic lifestyle have independently evolved twelve times in more than four thousand parasitic plants. Among these parasites, otherwise rare features have evolved repetitively at both the molecular and phenotypical levels, including reduced vegetative [...]

Rock climbing affects cliff-plant communities by reducing species diversity and altering species coexistence patterns

Martí March-Salas, Felipe Morales-Armijo, Juan Antonio Hernández-Agüero, et al.

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Life Sciences

Cliffs are unique ecosystems with an outstanding but relatively unknown plant diversity, harboring rare, endemic and threatened species, but also common and dominant species. The rising popularity of climbing represents an increasing threat to cliff biota, potentially diminishing diversity and species associations, and affecting the community composition. We used a novel closely paired sampling [...]

Toward the comprehensive understanding of food chain length

Shota Shibasaki, Akira Terui

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

1. Food chain length (FCL), roughly defined by the number of trophic links, is one important aspect of biodiversity. However, studies on FCL are limited to simple food webs (e.g., only three or four species in a community) or simple hypotheses (i.e., what is a determinant of FCL?) 2. In this review, we propose research directions to comprehensively understand how multiple environmental factors [...]

The Q approach to consensus building: integrating diverse perspectives to guide decision-making

Jonas Geschke, Davnah Urbach, Graham W. Prescott, et al.

Published: 2022-11-11
Subjects: Communication, Environmental Policy, Environmental Studies, Geography, Models and Methods, Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation, Political Science, Social and Behavioral Sciences

1. Decision-making processes are complex and time-intensive, particularly when a consensus needs to be achieved amongst more than two parties. Discussions and negotiations must consider all relevant stakeholders and their individual perspectives on the decision to be taken. Methods for identifying, understanding, and acknowledging divergent perspectives can support successful consensus building. [...]

The cost of being a non-native English speaker in science

Tatsuya Amano, Valeria Ramírez-Castañeda, Violeta Berdejo-Espinola, et al.

Published: 2022-11-10
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, International and Intercultural Communication, Publishing, Scholarly Publishing

The use of English as the common language of science represents a major impediment to maximising the contribution of non-native English speakers to science. Yet few studies have quantified the consequences of language barriers on the career development of researchers who are non-native English speakers. Our survey demonstrates that non-native English speakers, especially early in their careers, [...]

Space-for-time substitutions in climate change ecology and evolution

Rebecca SL Lovell, Sinead Collins, Simon H Martin, et al.

Published: 2022-11-10
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

In an epoch of rapid environmental change, understanding and predicting how biodiversity will respond to a changing climate is one of the most urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolution. Since we seldom have sufficient long-term biological data to use the past to anticipate the future, spatial climate-biotic associations are often used as a proxy for predicting biotic responses to climate [...]

Heritability and developmental plasticity of growth in an oviparous lizard

Fonti Kar, Shinichi Nakagawa, Daniel W.A. Noble

Published: 2022-11-09
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Selective processes act on phenotypic variation yet the evolutionary potential of any given trait relies on underlying heritable variation. Developmental plasticity is an important source of phenotypic variation, but it can also promote changes in heritability by modifying environmental sources of variability. Here, we quantified the influence of developmental temperature on an important fitness [...]

Colombia reached 30 % of land and ocean conservation area. Megadiverse countries are hitting targets but missing the point

Andres Felipe Suarez-Castro, Sofia Lopez-Cubillos, Jaime Burbano Girón, et al.

Published: 2022-11-08
Subjects: Life Sciences

The global target to protect 30% of Earth’s land and ocean by 2030 has prompted governments to report their progress in biodiversity conservation. Announcements of countries reaching 30 % of conservation area are widely commended by the international community, despite signs of increasing pressures within protected areas, poor representativity of key threatened ecosystems, and a lack of [...]

Evolutionary origins of the Mesoamerican-eastern United States floristic disjunction: current status and future prospects

Gregory W Stull

Published: 2022-11-07
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Biogeographic disjunction patterns, where multiple taxonomic groups are shared between isolated geographic areas, represent excellent systems for investigating the historical assembly of modern biotas as well as fundamental biological processes such as speciation, diversification, niche evolution, and evolutionary responses to climate change. Studies on plant genera disjunct across the Northern [...]

The Fieldwork Wellness Framework: A new approach to field research in Ecology

Anna Elizabeth Nordseth, Jacqueline R Gerson, Lucrecia K Aguilar, et al.

Published: 2022-11-07
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Fieldwork is often an important aspect of research in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology (EECB), but individuals with marginalized identities are likely to experience compromised wellness. The responsibility for structurally changing fieldwork to improve experiences and outcomes falls on the entire EECB community. We propose a Fieldwork Wellness Framework to replace traditional [...]

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