Preprints

There are 1631 Preprints listed.

IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Mangroves of the South Kuroshio

Tomomi Inoue, Shigeyuki Baba, Yasuaki Akaji, et al.

Published: 2024-05-22
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Mangroves of the South Kuroshio is a regional ecosystem subgroup (level 4 unit of the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology). It includes the marine ecoregions of the Central Kuroshio Current and South Kuroshio. In 2020, the mapped extent of the South Kuroshio mangrove province was 8.0 km2, representing less than 0.01% of the global mangrove area; the biota is characterized by 19 true mangrove species. [...]

IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Mangroves of the Warm Temperate Northeast Pacific

Luis Valderrama-Landeros, Francisco Flores-de-Santiago, Giovanni Ávila-Flores, et al.

Published: 2024-05-22
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Mangroves of the Warm Temperate Northeast Pacific is a regional ecosystem subgroup (level 4 unit of the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology). It includes the marine ecoregions of the South-Californian Pacific and the Gulf of California. The mapped extent of the Warm Temperate Northeast Pacific mangrove province in 2020 was 1,810.4 km², which represents 1.5% of the global mangrove area. There are three [...]

The effect of single versus successive warm summers on an intertidal community

Amelia Virginia Hesketh, Cassandra Konecny, Sandra Emry, et al.

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Life Sciences

To accurately predict how organisms and ecological communities will respond to future conditions caused by climate change, we must consider the temporal dimension of environmental stressors, including the effects of repeated exposures to stress. We performed a two-year passive warming experiment in coastal British Columbia to explore the response of intertidal communities to single and successive [...]

Why wild herbivores raid crops: alternative hypotheses and their differential implications for mitigation of human wildlife conflict

Milind watve, Sonal Prabhulkar

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Life Sciences

Wild herbivores eating up crops is a major issue in human wildlife conflict. Although there is substantial literature that identifies the conflict, tries to estimate the extent of economic loss, its consequences and also suggests some mitigation measures, many fundamental issues remain unaddressed. A number of speculations about the root causes behind the problem have been made but they haven’t [...]

A Gene-Culture Co-Evolutionary Perspective on the Puzzle of Human Twinship

Augusto Dalla Ragione, Cody Ross, Daniel Redhead

Published: 2024-05-20
Subjects: Biological and Physical Anthropology, Evolution, Maternal and Child Health, Population Biology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

Natural selection should favor litter sizes that optimize trade-offs between brood-size and offspring viability. Across the primate order, modal litter size is one, suggesting a deep history of selection favoring minimal litters. Humans, however---despite having the longest juvenile period and slowest life-history of all primates---still produce twin-births at appreciable rates, even though such [...]

Ten golden rules for restoration to secure resilient and just seagrass social-ecological systems

Richard Kazimierz Frank Unsworth, Benjamin Lawrence Hopper Jones, Chiara Bertelli, et al.

Published: 2024-05-20
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

It is unequivocal that the world has lost a significant proportion of its seagrass, and although glimmers of hope exist, losses continue with many ongoing negative trajectories. First and foremost, we need to put the world on a global pathway to seagrass net gain. Conservation of what remains must be a priority, but we need to increase coverage at rates unlikely to be achieved naturally; [...]

A minimum data standard for wildlife disease studies

Tess Stevens, Ryan Zimmerman, Greg Albery, et al.

Published: 2024-05-19
Subjects: Animal Diseases, Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Diseases, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Virology, Virus Diseases

Thousands of scientists and practitioners conduct research on infectious diseases of wildlife. Rapid and comprehensive data sharing is vital to the transparency and actionability of their work, but unfortunately, most efforts designed to publically share these data are focused on pathogen determination and genetic sequence data. Other facets of existing surveillance data – particularly [...]

Persistent effects of landscape connectivity on recruitment dynamics in secondary forests

Michiel van Breugel, Jefferson S. Hall, Mario Bailon, et al.

Published: 2024-05-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

Large scale reforestation is promoted as an important strategy to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss. A persistent challenge for efforts to restore ecosystems at scale is how to accelerate ecological processes, particularly natural regeneration. Yet, despite being recognized as an important barrier to the recovery of diverse plant communities in agricultural landscapes, the impacts of [...]

Temperature dependence of pollen germination and tube growth in conifers relates to their distribution along an elevational gradient in Washington State, USA

Hsin-Wu Hsu, Soo-Hyung Kim

Published: 2024-05-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

•Background and Aims: Pollen germination and tube growth are essential processes for successful fertilization. They are among the most temperature-vulnerable stages and subsequently affect seed production and determine population persistence and species distribution under climate change. Our study aims to investigate intra- and inter-specific variations in the temperature dependence of pollen [...]

How is the effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas to conserve biodiversity measured? A systematic map

Neal R Haddaway, Natasha Stoudmann, Sini Savilaakso

Published: 2024-05-16
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Protected areas (PAs) are fundamental in preserving ecological diversity, supporting ecosystem services, and mitigating human impacts in today’s world. However, the mere designation of PAs is insufficient for achieving conservation goals. It needs to be ensured through employment of robust management practices and the deployment of scientifically sound monitoring methodologies. This systematic [...]

IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Mangroves of the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic

Carlos Troche-Souza, Ariel E. Lugo, Tamara Heartsill-Scalley, et al.

Published: 2024-05-15
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Mangroves of the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic is a regional ecosystem subgroup (level 4 unit of the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology). It includes the marine ecoregions of Bahamian, Carolinian, Eastern Caribbean, Floridian, Greater Antilles, Northern Gulf of Mexico, Southern Caribbean, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Southwestern Caribbean and Western Caribbean. The mapped extent of mangroves in 2020 [...]

Enhancing biodiversity monitoring efficiency through CRISPR-driven depletion and enrichment of aquatic environmental DNA

Anya Kardailsky, Benjamín Durán-Vinet, Georgia Nester, et al.

Published: 2024-05-13
Subjects: Life Sciences

Characterising biodiversity using environmental DNA (eDNA) represents a paradigm shift in our capacity for biomonitoring complex aquatic environments. However, eDNA biomonitoring is limited by biases towards certain species and low taxonomic resolution of current metabarcoding-based approaches. Shotgun metagenomics of eDNA enables the collection of whole ecosystem data by sequencing all molecules [...]

Proactive management outperforms reactive strategies for wildlife disease control

Molly Bletz, Evan Grant, Graziella DiRenzo

Published: 2024-05-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Finding effective pathogen mitigation strategies is one of the biggest challenges humans face today. In the context of wildlife, emerging infectious diseases have repeatedly caused widespread host morbidity and population declines of numerous taxa. In areas yet unaffected by a pathogen, a proactive management approach has the potential to minimize or prevent host mortality. However, we typically [...]

Quantifying intermediary processes in ecology using causal mediation analyses

Hannah E Correia, Laura E Dee, Paul J Ferraro

Published: 2024-05-13
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Statistical Methodology

Ecologists seek to understand the intermediary ecological processes through which changes in one attribute in a system affect other attributes. Yet, quantifying the causal effects of these mediating processes in ecological systems is challenging. Researchers must define what they mean by a “mediated effect”, determine what assumptions are required to estimate mediation effects without bias, and [...]

Simple and robust models of ecological abundance

John Alroy

Published: 2024-05-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

1. Counts of species in ecological samples are of interest when they tell us about community assembly processes. Older process-based models of count distributions are either complex, widely rejected, or not able to predict high unevenness. 2. I leverage a general strategy for deriving simple one-parameter models. A distribution of abundances x on a continuous scale is predicted from a [...]

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