Preprints

There are 1462 Preprints listed.

Comparing conservation land acquisition strategies using agent-based models

Robert J. Smith, Assaf Shwartz, Claire Stewart, et al.

Published: 2024-01-30
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Most unprotected biodiversity is found outside state-owned protected areas, so developing effective conservation initiatives on privately and communally-owned land is critical. Conservationists have a long history of working with these landowners and their actions can be divided into two broad categories. The first is where they agree to take over responsibility for management, either by buying [...]

A non-invasive approach to measuring body dimensions of wildlife with camera-traps: a felid field trial

Alexandra Jane Paton, Barry W. Brook, Jessie C. Buettel

Published: 2024-01-30
Subjects: Life Sciences

Dimensions of body size are an important measurement in animal ecology, though they can be difficult to obtain due to the effort and cost associated with the invasive nature of these measurements. We avoid these limitations by using camera-trap images to derive dimensions of animal size. To obtain measurements of object dimensions using this method, the size of the object in pixels, the focal [...]

Experimental protocol for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics palaeoecological simulations

Harriet B. Drage, Stephen Pates, Nicholas J. Minter

Published: 2024-01-30
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to test palaeoecological hypotheses. These analyses output simulated velocity and pressure flow profiles, and drag and lift force values acting on a model. These outputs are presumed to be internally consistent, assuming consistently applied parameters, but it is unclear whether these reflect real-world force measurements. [...]

The fossil record of the Neogene Carnivore Mammals from Spain

Jorge Morales, Juan L. Cantalapiedra, Alberto Valenciano, et al.

Published: 2024-01-26
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Carnivore mammals (Carnivora, Mammalia) constitute a significant component of the Spanish Neogene faunas, not so much due to their fossil abundance, which is generally low, but rather because of their high degree of taxonomic diversity. We assessed their evolutionary dynamics from the fossil record of Iberian carnivores using per-taxon rates of origination, extinctions and turnover combined with [...]

Conceptual Models regarding Internal and External Dynamics and Their Interaction in Biological Phenomena

Y Nishida

Published: 2024-01-26
Subjects: Life Sciences

Much research has been done on the evolutionary processes and general properties of life from the fields of systems biology, mathematical biology, and evolutionary biology. Life is a system in which micro and macro are coordinated and subsystems are organized to maintain metabolism and function. Life also has systems that maintain homeostasis within the body. Life adapts to time and space, [...]

Hybridization potential of brown trout, with particular reference to invaded environments

Craig F Purchase, Connor Hanley, Tyler H. Lantiegne, et al.

Published: 2024-01-26
Subjects: Aquaculture and Fisheries Life Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Population Biology

Hybridization is a complex process beginning with the mating of two species. However, hybrid offspring frequency does not predict hetero-specific mating frequency, as post-mating, both pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers influence their occurrence. Post-zygotic outbreeding depression usually results in poor embryo-juvenile survival or the production of sterile hybrid offspring. Females have [...]

Quantifying soil microbial effects on plant species coexistence: a conceptual synthesis

Gaurav Kandlikar

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Soil microorganisms play a critical role in shaping biodiversity dynamics in plant communities. These microbial effects can arise through direct mediation of plant fitness by pathogens and mutualists, and over the past two decades, numerous studies have shined a spotlight on the role of dynamic feedbacks between plants and soil microorganisms as key determinants of plant species coexistence. [...]

Puma space use and dispersal in tropical biodiversity hotspots: bridging a gap to connect individuals to populations

Bernardo Brandão Niebuhr, Sandra Maria Cintra Cavalcanti, Ermeson A. Vilalba, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Zoology

Assessing residency and dispersal behavior of apex predators and its consequences for landscape connectivity is of paramount importance for understanding population- and ecosystem- effects of anthropogenic land use change. However, basic information on animal space use is still lacking, particularly in the Tropics. Here we synthesize ranging and dispersal ecological information on pumas (Puma [...]

Parasitism and the tradeoffs of social grouping: The role of parasite transmission mode

Lauren Elizabeth Nadler, Jolle W Jolles, Sandra Ann Binning, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Animals use social grouping for numerous fitness-enhancing processes, such as foraging, social learning, defense, and energy expenditure. One broadly referenced negative consequence of social grouping is the increased risk of exposure to parasites, which are defined broadly here as organisms with obligate, persistent, and harmful consumer associations with a host. However, there is growing [...]

A Critique of Thompson and Ramírez-Barahona (2023) or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Fossil Record

Eric Robert Hagen

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Last year, a study published in Biology Letters by Thompson and Ramírez-Barahona (2023) argued that, according to analyses of diversification on two massive molecular phylogenies comprising thousands of species, there is no evidence that angiosperms (i.e., flowering plants) were affected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Here I show that these conclusions are flawed from both [...]

Predicting organismal response to marine heatwaves using mechanistic thermal landscape models

Andrew R Villeneuve, Easton R White

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause thermal stress in marine ectotherms, experienced as a pulse against the press of anthropogenic warming. When thermal stress exceeds organismal capacity to maintain homeostasis, organism survival becomes time-limited and can result in mass mortality events. Current methods of detecting and categorizing MHWs rely on statistical analysis of historic climatology, and [...]

Temporal changes in streamflow regime and host-related factors affect parasitism of freshwater prawn in Southeast Brazil

Alison Wunderlich, Esli Emanoel Domingues Mosna, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Understanding how changes in hydrological regime and intrinsic host factors drive parasite loads and dynamics remains a challenging issue in aquatic parasitology. Many host-parasite systems have shown that host-related factors can influence parasitism in freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the hydrological regime are also one key factor that could alter the streamflow and habitat area and [...]

Bayesian Estimation of Cooccurrence Affinity with Dyadic Regression

Arthur Rufaro Newbury

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Estimating underlying cooccurrence relationships between pairs of species has long been a challenging task in ecology as the extent to which species actually cooccur is partially dependent on their prevalences. While recent work has taken large steps towards solving this problem, the next question is how to assess the factors that influence cooccurrence. Here I show that a recently proposed [...]

Distribution, Abundance and Status of At-Risk Birds at a Six-Acre Site Within the Upper Boileau Biodiversity Reserve, Québec: A Year-Long Research Study

Jimmy Videle

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Understanding the distribution, abundance and status of at-risk birds in any area where human impact is low is an imperative in understanding the larger ecological situation. Birds have been widely seen as reliable indicators of ecological health and there have been significant population declines in North America, especially among migratory aerial insectivores, and are escalading rapidly. As a [...]

A systematic review and meta-analysis of anti-predator mechanisms of eyespots: conspicuous pattern vs eye mimicry

Ayumi Mizuno, Malgorzata Lagisz, Pietro Pollo, et al.

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Eyespot patterns have evolved in many prey species. These patterns were traditionally explained by the eye mimicry hypothesis, which proposes that eyespots resembling vertebrate eyes function as predator avoidance. However, it is possible that eyespots are not the mimicry of eyes: according to the conspicuousness hypothesis, eyespots are just one form of vivid aposematic signals where only [...]

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