There are 1217 Preprints listed.

Origin and Evolution of Translation: A Unifying Perspective Across Time

Evrim Fer, Bruno Cuevas-Zuviria, Aaron D. Goldman, et al.

Published: 2023-08-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Translation is a foundational biological process that decodes genetic information provided by an mRNA template. Over the past decade major advancements have been made towards understanding the origins and early evolution of translation. There remain two critical gaps: First, we lack a coherent view of how translation factors emerged and co-evolved to regulate the cellular protein synthesis. [...]

Family-living and cooperative breeding in birds are associated with the number of avian predators

Louis Bliard, Paul Dufour, Michael Griesser, et al.

Published: 2023-08-22
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Cooperative breeding occurs when individuals contribute parental care to offspring that are not their own, and numerous intra- and inter-specific studies have aimed to explain the evolution of this behaviour. Recent comparative work suggests that family living (i.e., when offspring remain with their parents beyond independence) is a critical steppingstone in the evolution of cooperative breeding. [...]

Relative abundance distributions reveal constraints on tetrapod community diversity

Neil Brocklehurst, Bethany Allen, Emma M Dunne

Published: 2023-08-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Evolution

Previous efforts to understand the pace of species diversification through time have disagreed over whether species diversity is unbounded or limited by a carrying capacity. Tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have frequently been employed as a case-study in examinations of this issue, with studies of diversity being used to support both sides. Here, we examine the shape of relative abundance [...]

Additions and Corrections to the Taxonomy of “Cistanthe arenaria” (Montiaceae)

Mark Alan Hershkovitz

Published: 2023-08-21
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

This work provides corrections and additions to a previously published taxonomy of Chilean plants classified as Cistanthe arenaria (Cham.) Carolin ex Hershk. The identity of Calandrinia bracteosa Phil. is discussed. Errors and omissions involving a table, figures and figure captions, and measurement are reported.

DAISIEmainland: an R package for simulating an island-mainland system for macroevolution on islands

Joshua W. Lambert, Pedro Santos Neves, Rampal S. Etienne, et al.

Published: 2023-08-21
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Speciation and extinction of species are two of the most fundamental processes that are investigated in the field of evolutionary biology. Ideally, one would like to study these processes in replicated isolated systems. Islands come close to this setting if colonisation is rare. However, often we cannot directly measure when an island was colonised, when a colonist species speciated, or when [...]

CasPEDIA Database: A Functional Classification System for Class 2 CRISPR-Cas Enzymes

Benjamin A Adler, Marena I Trinidad, Daniel Bellieny-Rabelo, et al.

Published: 2023-08-17
Subjects: Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Bioinformatics, Life Sciences

CRISPR-Cas enzymes enable RNA-guided bacterial immunity and are widely used for biotechnological applications including genome editing. In particular, the Class 2 CRISPR-associated enzymes (Cas9, Cas12 and Cas13 families), have been deployed for numerous research, clinical and agricultural applications. However, the immense genetic and biochemical diversity of these proteins in the public domain [...]

On the use of individual-based models in predictive plant ecology

Christian Damgaard

Published: 2023-08-17
Subjects: Life Sciences

The use of IBM may be the only possible method for getting quantitative insights into some dynamical aspects of animal populations with complicated behavior, but this is surely not the case in plant ecology, where relevant plant population models have been formulated and used for decades. In my opinion, credible predictive plant ecological models is most effectively performed using population [...]

The feeding apparatus of ants: An overview of structure and function

Adrian Richter, Evan P. Economo

Published: 2023-08-16
Subjects: Life Sciences

Ants are a dominant family of eusocial terrestrial insects with a diversity of ecologies, lifestyles and morphologies. Ant diet preferences range from strict carnivory through omnivory to almost complete herbivory in species feeding on seeds or exudates of plant sucking insects. While several studies have investigated ant feeding performance on different substrates, comparatively little is [...]

Feedback loops drive ecological succession; towards a unified conceptual framework

Michiel van Breugel, Frans Bongers, Natalia Norden, et al.

Published: 2023-08-16
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

The core principle shared by most theories and models of succession is that plant-environment (PE) feedback dynamics drive a directional change in the plant community, following a major disturbance. The most commonly studied feedback loops are those in which the regrowth of the plant community causes changes to the biotic (e.g., dispersers) or abiotic (e.g., soil nutrients) environment, which [...]

Botany and Geogenomics: constraining geological hypotheses with large-scale genetic data derived from plants

Ana Maria Bedoya

Published: 2023-08-09
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Past studies in plant phylogenetics have shed light on how the geological history of our planet shaped plant evolution by establishing well-known patterns (e.g., how mountain uplift resulted in high rates of diversification and replicate radiations in montane plant taxa). Under this approach, information is transferred from geology to botany, by interpreting data in light of geological processes. [...]

Paws for thought: Impacts of animal husbandry on tundra greening in High Arctic Svalbard

Elise Gallois, Logan Berner, Kristine Bakke Westergaard, et al.

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Dog sledding in High Arctic Svalbard is a key tourist attraction, and the keeping of animals and livestock has historically been in practice in the settlements of the archipelago. The resulting waste disposal practices - particularly those involving the disposal of animal faeces and fodder - hugely enrich soils with excess nutrients. Here, we explore how animal husbandry affected changes in [...]

The unfulfilled potential of dogs in studying behavioural evolution during the Anthropocene

Christina Hansen Wheat, Clive DL Wynne

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Zoology

Dogs are an exceptional resource for studying ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes, but remain under-represented within these fields due to the anthropomorphisation of dog behaviour, and the view that dog domestication was human-driven. These widespread misconceptions limit our understanding of dog behaviour and inhibit the use of dogs as study systems in diverse areas of biological [...]

The Puzzle of Leadership: The Interplay between Individual Traits and Coordination Mechanisms

Kasper Feliks Hlebowicz, Jerome Buhl, Stephan T Leu

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

In social systems, movement of individual group members scales up to spatiotemporal dynamics of the group. However, the level of influence on group movement dynamics can be variable among group members. The influence of an individual is often referred to as their leadership potential. However, despite the common occurrence of leader-follower patterns across various taxa, little is known whether [...]

Assessing risk of ecosystem collapse in a changing climate

Jessica A. Rowland, Emily Nicholson, Jose-Rafael Ferrer-Paris, et al.

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences

Climate change has pervasive impacts on Earth’s ecosystems, but the diversity and complexity of ecosystems makes estimating the severity of impacts and the resulting risk of collapse difficult. In this perspective, we conceptualise the challenge of understanding how climate change alters ecosystems, and how to reliably measure those changes in ecosystem risk assessments, focussing on the IUCN Red [...]


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