Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Medicine and Health Sciences

The Shadow of the Neolithic Revolution on Life Expectancy: A Double-Edged Sword

Raphael Franck, Oded Galor, Omer Moav, et al.

Published: 2022-03-01
Subjects: Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Anthropology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities, Diseases, Economic History, Economics, Endocrine System Diseases, Growth and Development, Health Economics, Immune System Diseases, Labor Economics, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Economics, Public Health, Regional Economics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

This research explores the persistent effect of the Neolithic Revolution on the evolution of life expectancy in the course of human history. It advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that the onset of the Neolithic Revolution and the associated rise in infectious diseases triggered a process of adaptation reducing mortality from infectious diseases while increasing the propensity for [...]

For the few, not the many: local economic conditions constrain the large-scale management of invasive mosquitoes

Jacopo Cerri, Chiara Sciandra, Tania Contardo, et al.

Published: 2022-01-06
Subjects: Economics, Entomology, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Economics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Biology

Invasive mosquitoes are an emerging ecological and sanitary issue. Many factors have been suggested as drivers or barriers to their control, still no study quantified their influence over mosquito management by local authorities, nor their interplay with local economic conditions. We assessed how multiple environmental, sanitary, and socio-economic factors affected the engagement of [...]

Source and seasonality of epizootic mycoplasmosis in free-ranging pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)

Marguerite Johnson, Christopher MacGlover, Erika Peckham, et al.

Published: 2021-12-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Pathogenic Microbiology, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

Mycoplasma bovis is an economically important bacterial pathogen of cattle and bison that most commonly causes pneumonia, polyarthritis and mastitis. M. bovis is prevalent in cattle and commercial bison; however, infections in other species are rare. In early 2019, we identified M. bovis in free-ranging pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in northeastern Wyoming, USA. Here we report on additional [...]

Allogenous Selection of Mutational Collateral Resistance: Old Drugs Select for New Resistances Within Antibiotic Families

Fernando Baquero, Jose-Luis Martínez, Angela Silva-Novais, et al.

Published: 2021-09-11
Subjects: Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology

Allogeneous selection occurs when an antibiotic selects for resistance to more advanced members of the same family. The mechanisms of allogenous selection are (a) collateral expansion, when the antibiotic expands the gene and gene-containing bacterial populations favoring the emergence of other mutations, inactivating the more advanced antibiotics; (b) collateral selection, when the old [...]

Nature’s contributions in coping with a pandemic in the 21st century: A narrative review of evidence during COVID-19

S M Labib, Matthew Browning, Alessandro Rigolon, et al.

Published: 2021-08-10
Subjects: Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Geography, Medicine and Health Sciences, Mental and Social Health, Nature and Society Relations, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

While COVID-19 lockdowns have slowed coronavirus transmission, such structural measures also have unintended consequences on mental and physical health. Growing evidence shows that exposure to the natural environment (e.g., blue-green spaces) can improve human health and wellbeing. In this narrative review, we synthesized the evidence about natures contributions to health and wellbeing during the [...]

Transgenerational effects of obesogenic diets in rodents: a meta-analysis

Hamza Anwer, Margaret Morris, Daniel W.A. Noble, et al.

Published: 2021-08-02
Subjects: Biology, Diseases, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Nutrition

Obesity is a major health condition that affects millions worldwide. There is an increased interest in understanding the adverse outcomes associated with obesogenic diets. A multitude of studies have investigated the transgenerational impacts of maternal and parental obesogenic diets on subsequent generations of offspring, but results have largely been mixed. We conducted a systematic review [...]

Impact of Infectious Disease on Humans and Our Origins

Petar Gabrić

Published: 2021-06-18
Subjects: Anthropology, Archaeological Anthropology, Arts and Humanities, Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Biological Phenomena, Cell Phenomena, and Immunity, Cell and Developmental Biology, Cell Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetic Phenomena, Genetics, Genetics and Genomics, History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, Life Sciences, Medical Biochemistry, Medical Cell Biology, Medical Genetics, Medical Immunology, Medical Microbiology, Medical Molecular Biology, Medical Pathology, Medical Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Molecular Genetics, Pathogenic Microbiology, Pharmacology, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Virology

On May 16, 2020, the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny organized the symposium “Impact of Infectious Disease on Humans and Our Origins”. The symposium aimed to gather experts on infectious diseases in one place and discuss the interrelationship between different pathogens and humans in an evolutionary context. The talks discussed topics including SARS-CoV-2, dengue and [...]

Social capital: an independent dimension of healthy ageing

Cédric Sueur, Martin Quque, Alexandre Naud, et al.

Published: 2021-05-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physiology, Public Health, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Zoology

Resources that are embedded in social relationships, such as shared knowledge, access to food, services, social support or cooperation, are all examples of social capital. Social capital is recognized as an important age-related mediator of health in humans and of fitness-related traits in animals. A rich social capital in humans can slow senescence and reverse age-related deficits. Animals have [...]

Spillback in the Anthropocene: the risk of human-to-wildlife pathogen transmission for conservation and public health

Anna C Fagre, Lily Cohen, Evan A. Eskew, et al.

Published: 2021-04-11
Subjects: Bacteriology, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Public Health, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology, Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health, Virology

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to increased concern over transmission of pathogens from humans to animals (“spillback”) and its potential to threaten conservation and public health. To assess this threat, we reviewed published evidence of spillback events, including instances where spillback could threaten conservation and human health. We identified 97 verified examples of spillback, involving [...]

COVID-19 through the One Health lens: adding a missing perspective

Christian Selbach, Maarten P. M. Vanhove, Kim Nørgaard Mouritsen

Published: 2021-03-22
Subjects: Diseases, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Parasitology, Virus Diseases

The One Health concept offers an integrative approach to disease and health at the human-animal-environment interface. It has often been suggested to view the COVID-19 outbreak within this framework to better understand and mitigate this global crisis. Here, we discuss how the evolutionary ecology of host-pathogen systems can add a valuable additional perspective to the debate around SARS-CoV-2 [...]

Deploying Ecological Countermeasures as a Biosecurity Imperative

Jamie Reaser, Gary M. Tabor, Rohit A. Chitale, et al.

Published: 2021-03-08
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Immunopathology, International Public Health, Life Sciences, Maternal and Child Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Immunology and Infectious Disease, Population Biology, Public Health, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology, Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology, Zoology

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought biosecurity to the forefront of national security policy. Land use change is a fundamental driver of zoonotic disease outbreaks, yet substantial study is yet required to unravel the mechanisms by which land use-induced spillover operates. Ecological degradation may be the 21st Century’s most overlooked security threat. Within the biosecurity context, we introduce [...]

Evolutionary Pathways and Trajectories in Antibiotic Resistance

Fernando Baquero, Jose L Martinez, Jeronimo Rodriguez-Beltrán, et al.

Published: 2021-01-26
Subjects: Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Pathogenic Microbiology

Evolution is the hallmark of life. Descriptions of the evolution of microorganisms have provided a wealth of information, but knowledge regarding “what happened” has precluded a deeper understanding of “how” evolution has proceeded, as in the case of antimicrobial resistance. The difficulty in answering the “how” question lies in the multihierarchical dimensions of evolutionary processes, nested [...]

Liberating host-virus knowledge from biological dark data

Nathan Upham, Jorrit H. Poelen, Deborah Leo Paul, et al.

Published: 2021-01-15
Subjects: Diseases, Epidemiology, International Public Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Organisms, Public Health

Connecting basic data about bats and other potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2 with their ecological context is critical for understanding the emergence and spread of COVID-19. However, when global lockdown started in March 2020, the world’s bat experts were locked out of their research laboratories, which, in turn, locked up large volumes of offline ecological and taxonomic data. Pandemic lockdowns [...]

Parallel pandemics illustrate the need for One Health solutions

Sue VandeWoude, Claire Tucker, Anna C Fagre, et al.

Published: 2021-01-01
Subjects: Environmental Public Health, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Immunology and Infectious Disease, Public Health, Translational Medical Research

African Swine Fever (ASF) was reported in domestic pigs in China in 2018. This highly contagious viral infection with no effective vaccine reached pandemic proportions by 2019, substantially impacting protein availability in the same region where the COVID-19 pandemic subsequently emerged. We discuss the genesis, spread, and wide-reaching impacts of an epidemic in a vital livestock species, [...]

Ecological Countermeasures for Pandemic Prevention: When Ecological Restoration is a Human Health Imperative

Jamie Reaser, Arne Witt, Gary M. Tabor, et al.

Published: 2020-12-05
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Bacteriology, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Immunopathology, Integrative Biology, International Public Health, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Parasitology, Pathogenic Microbiology, Population Biology, Public Health, Systems Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology, Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology, Zoology

Ecological restoration should be regarded as a public health service. Unfortunately, the lack of quantitative linkages between environmental and human health has limited recognition of these principle. Advent of COVID-19 pandemic provides the impetus for the further discussion. We propose ecological countermeasures as highly targeted, landscape-based interventions to arrest the drivers of land [...]

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