Beyond "bluespace" and "greenspace": A narrative review of possible health benefits from exposure to other natural landscapes

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Hansen Li, Matthew Browning , Alessandro Rigolon, Lincoln R Larson, B. Derrick Taff, S M Labib, Jacob Benfield, Shuai Yuan, Olivia McAnirlin, Nazanin Hatami


Numerous studies have highlighted the physical and mental health benefits of contact with nature, typically in landscapes characterized by plants (i.e., “greenspace”) and water (i.e., “bluespace”). However, natural landscapes are not always green or blue, and the effects of other landscapes are worth attention. This narrative review attempts to overcome this limitation of past research.
Rather than focusing on colors, we propose that natural landscapes are composed of at least one of three components: (1) plants (e.g., trees, flowering plants, grasses, sedges, mosses, ferns, and algae), (2) water (e.g., rivers, canals, lakes, oceans), and/or (3) rocks and minerals, including soil. Landscapes not dominated by plants or liquid-state water include those with abundant solid-state water (e.g., polar spaces) and rocks or minerals (e.g., deserts, caves). Possible health benefits of solid-state water or rock/mineral dominated landscapes include both shorter-term (e.g., viewing images) and longer-term (e.g., living in these landscapes) exposure durations. Reported benefits span improved emotional and mental states and medical treatment resources for respiratory conditions and allergies. Restorative and instorative mechanisms underlying health benefits consist of commonly discussed theories in the "greenspace" and "bluespace" literature, as well as less discussed pathways in that literature (i.e., post-traumatic growth theory, supportive environment theory, and place attachment).
This is the first review to draw attention to the potential salutogenic value of natural landscapes beyond "greenspace" and "bluespace." It is also among the first to highlight the limitations and confusion that result from classifying natural landscapes using color. Since the extant literature on natural landscapes - beyond those with abundant plants or liquid-state water - is limited in regard to quantity and quality, additional research is needed to understand their restorative potential and therapeutic possibilities.



Environmental Public Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Health


bluespace, brownspace, Ecosystem Services, environmental epidemology, environmental psychology, epidemology, Greenspace, nature, Public health, whitespace


Published: 2022-08-10 12:15

Last Updated: 2022-09-28 17:49

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