Filtering by Subject: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

DAISIEmainland: an R package for simulating an island-mainland system for macroevolution on islands

Joshua W. Lambert, Pedro Santos Neves, Rampal S. Etienne, et al.

Published: 2023-08-21
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Speciation and extinction of species are two of the most fundamental processes that are investigated in the field of evolutionary biology. Ideally, one would like to study these processes in replicated isolated systems. Islands come close to this setting if colonisation is rare. However, often we cannot directly measure when an island was colonised, when a colonist species speciated, or when [...]

Feedback loops drive ecological succession; towards a unified conceptual framework

Michiel van Breugel, Frans Bongers, Natalia Norden, et al.

Published: 2023-08-15
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

The core principle shared by most theories and models of succession is that plant-environment (PE) feedback dynamics drive a directional change in the plant community, following a major disturbance. The most commonly studied feedback loops are those in which the regrowth of the plant community causes changes to the biotic (e.g., dispersers) or abiotic (e.g., soil nutrients) environment, which [...]

Botany and Geogenomics: constraining geological hypotheses in the Neotropics with large-scale genetic data derived from plants

Ana Maria Bedoya

Published: 2023-08-09
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Decades of empirical research have revealed how the geological history of our planet shaped plant evolution by establishing well-known patterns (e.g., how mountain uplift resulted in high rates of diversification and replicate radiations in montane plant taxa). Under this approach, information is passed from geology to botany by interpreting data in light of geological processes. Instead, in this [...]

Paws for thought: Impacts of animal husbandry on tundra greening in High Arctic Svalbard

Elise Gallois, Logan Berner, Kristine Bakke Westergaard, et al.

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Dog sledding in High Arctic Svalbard is a key tourist attraction, and the keeping of animals and livestock has historically been in practice in the settlements of the archipelago. The resulting waste disposal practices - particularly those involving the disposal of animal faeces and fodder - hugely enrich soils with excess nutrients. Here, we explore how animal husbandry affected changes in [...]

The Puzzle of Leadership: The Interplay between Individual Traits and Coordination Mechanisms

Kasper Feliks Hlebowicz, Jerome Buhl, Stephan T Leu

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

In social systems, movement of individual group members scales up to spatiotemporal dynamics of the group. However, the level of influence on group movement dynamics can be variable among group members. The influence of an individual is often referred to as their leadership potential. However, despite the common occurrence of leader-follower patterns across various taxa, little is known whether [...]

Assessing risk of ecosystem collapse in a changing climate

Jessica A. Rowland, Emily Nicholson, Jose-Rafael Ferrer-Paris, et al.

Published: 2023-08-07
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences

Climate change has pervasive impacts on Earth’s ecosystems, but the diversity and complexity of ecosystems makes estimating the severity of impacts and the resulting risk of collapse difficult. In this perspective, we conceptualise the challenge of understanding how climate change alters ecosystems, and how to reliably measure those changes in ecosystem risk assessments, focussing on the IUCN Red [...]

The need of decoding life for taking care of biodiversity and the sustainable use of nature in the Anthropocene - a Faroese perspective

Svein-Ole Mikalsen, Jari í Hjøllum, Ian Salter, et al.

Published: 2023-07-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

Biodiversity is under pressure, mainly due to human activities and climate change. At the international policy level, it is now recognised that genetic diversity is an important part of biodiversity. The availability of high-quality reference genomes gives the best basis for using genetics and genetic diversity towards the global aims of (i) protection of species, biodiversity, and nature, and [...]

Practical guidelines and the EMLN R package for handling ecological multilayer networks

Noa Frydman, Shirly Freilikhman, Itamar Talpaz, et al.

Published: 2023-07-25
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Network analysis provides a powerful framework to study the complexity underlying the structure, dynamics, stability, and function of ecological systems. By now, analysing single-layered networks is a common practice with clear guidelines and well-established computational tools. Nevertheless, ecological communities are multilayered because they vary over space and time and contain multiple types [...]

Multimodel approaches are not the best way to understand multifactorial systems

Benjamin Bolker

Published: 2023-07-23
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Information-theoretic (IT) and multi-model averaging (MMA) statistical approaches are widely used but suboptimal tools for pursuing a multifactorial approach (also known as the method of multiple working hypotheses) in ecology. (1) Conceptually, IT encourages ecologists to perform tests on sets of artificial models. (2) MMA improves on IT model selection by implementing a simple form of [...]

Collating existing evidence on cumulative impacts of invasive plant species in riparian ecosystems of British Columbia, Canada: a systematic map protocol

Fabio Mologni, Chandra E. Moffat, Jason Pither

Published: 2023-07-22
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Background Globally, the structure and functioning of foreshore and riparian ecosystems are being dramatically impacted by non-native invasive plant species. Invasive species can outcompete and replace native species, modify geochemical and hydraulic cycles, alter trophic processes, and change the composition and structure of communities above and below ground. However, these impacts are often [...]

The evolutionary dynamics of plastic foraging and its ecological consequences: a resource-consumer model

Léo Ledru, Jimmy Garnier, Océane Guillot, et al.

Published: 2023-07-17
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Phenotypic plasticity has important ecological and evolutionary consequences. In particular, behavioural phenotypic plasticity such as plastic foraging (PF) by consumers, may enhance community stability. Yet little is known about the ecological conditions that favor the evolution of PF, and how the evolutionary dynamics of PF may modulate its effects on community stability. In order to address [...]

Application of crime theory in urban ecology, evolution and planning: factors influencing the disappearance of field equipment

Ignacy Stadnicki, Marta Szulkin, Michela Corsini

Published: 2023-07-15
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Urban Studies and Planning

1. Research in urban ecology and evolution relies on the use of deployable scientific equipment. If left unattended in the field, it may be prone to vandalism and theft, especially in the urban space. We empirically applied crime theory, specifically the Routine Activity Theory (RAT), to predict disappearance rates of scientific equipment in an on-going urban ecology research project. 2. [...]

Shifts in internal stem damage along a tropical precipitation gradient and implications for forest biomass estimation

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Abbey R Yatsko, Alexander W Cheeseman, et al.

Published: 2023-07-10
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Woody biomass is a large carbon store in terrestrial ecosystems. In calculating biomass, tree stems are assumed to be solid structures. However, decomposer agents such as microbes and insects target stem heartwood, causing internal wood decay which is poorly quantified. We investigated internal stem damage across five sites in tropical Australia along a precipitation gradient. We estimated the [...]

Habitat suitability maps for Australian flora and fauna under CMIP6 climate scenarios

Carla Leigh Archibald, David M Summers, Erin M Graham, et al.

Published: 2023-07-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Background: Spatial information about the location and suitability of areas for native plant and animal species under different climate futures is an important input to land use and conservation planning and management. Australia, renowned for its abundant species diversity and endemism, often relies on modelled data to assess species distributions due to the country's vast size and the [...]

Computationally reproducing results from meta-analyses in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology using shared code and data

Steven Kambouris, David Peter Wilkinson, Eden T. Smith, et al.

Published: 2023-07-04
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

The rates at which journal articles in ecology and evolutionary biology make data and code available have been studied previously. This study examines how often this data and code, when available, can be used to computationally reproduce results published in articles. This study surveys the data and code sharing practices of 177 meta-analyses published in ecology and evolutionary biology journals [...]


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