Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Extreme events and coupled socio-ecological systems

Easton R White, Sophie Wulfing

Published: 2023-11-20
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Behavioral Economics, Demography, Population, and Ecology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Human Ecology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Rare, but potentially impactful, extreme events in socio-ecological systems (SES) can trigger significant consequences. The scarcity of theoretical frameworks for such events in SES is due to data limitations and difficulty in building coupled SES models. We explore the effect of extreme events on coupled socio-ecological systems using two stylized case studies: harvesting of old-growth forests [...]

The Pangolin Universal Notching System (PUNS): A Foundational Scale Marking Methodology for Pangolins

Jeannie Jo-Miller Martin, Jacqueline Y Buckley, Ellen Connelly, et al.

Published: 2023-11-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Zoology

Abstract Due to significant anthropogenic pressures, all eight established species of pangolin are listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the highest level of international protection possible. Pangolin population status assessments are incomplete, particularly in areas with high exploitation and limited field assets. [...]

Forecasting insect dynamics in a changing world

Christie A Bahlai

Published: 2023-11-15
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology

Predicting how insects will respond to stressors through time is difficult because of the diversity of insects, environments, and approaches used to monitor and model. Forecasting models take correlative/statistical, mechanistic models, and integrated forms; in some cases, temporal processes can be inferred from spatial models. Because of heterogeneity associated with broad community [...]

Polyploid plants take cytonuclear perturbations in stride

Daniel B Sloan, Justin L Conover, Corrinne E Grover, et al.

Published: 2023-11-13
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Plant Biology

Hybridization in plants is often accompanied by nuclear genome doubling (allopolyploidy), which has been hypothesized to perturb interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic (mitochondrial and plastid) genomes by creating imbalances in the relative copy number of these genomes and producing genetic incompatibilities between maternally derived cytoplasmic genomes and the half of the allopolyploid [...]

Refining the trophic diversity, ecological network structure, and bottom-up importance of prey groups for temperate reef fishes

Salvador Zarco-Perello, Scott Bennett, Jordan Goetze, et al.

Published: 2023-11-07
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology

Marine fish communities are highly diverse, including all trophic levels of consumers and contributing to many ecosystem processes. Understanding the specific functional roles of many fish species and the importance of different prey groups for sustaining fish communities has, however, been limited by the historical classification of fishes into a few coarse trophic guilds. Using detailed diet [...]

Signatures of global processes shaping the structure of microbial co-occurrence networks

Geut Galai, Dafna Arbel, Keren Klass, et al.

Published: 2023-11-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences

Co-occurrence networks offer insights into the complexity of microbial interactions, particularly in highly diverse environments where direct observation is challenging. However, identifying the scale at which local and non-local processes structure co-occurrence networks remains challenging because it requires simultaneously analyzing network structure within and between local networks. In this [...]

The behavioural costs of overcrowding for gregarious cave-dwelling bats

Jeaneth Magelen V. Respicio, Kier Celestial Dela Cruz, Alice catherine Hughes, et al.

Published: 2023-11-01
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

1. Bats are known for their gregarious social behaviour, often congregating in caves and underground habitats, where they play a pivotal role in providing various ecosystem services. Studying bat behaviour remains an underexplored aspect of bat ecology and conservation despite its ecological importance. 2. We explore the costs and impacts of overcrowding on bat social behaviour. This study [...]

An illusion of a macroecological law, abundance-occupancy relationships

Shinichi Nakagawa, William K Cornwell, Corey T Callaghan

Published: 2023-11-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

In macroecology, a classic empirical observation has been positive relationships between local abundance and species' range, known as the abundance-occupancy relationships (AORs). The existence of this empirical relationship has informed both theory development and applied questions. Notably, the spatial neutral model of biodiversity predicts AORs. Yet, based on the largest known meta-analysis of [...]

Patterns and drivers of population trends on individual Breeding Bird Survey routes using spatially explicit models and route-level covariates

Adam C Smith, Veronica Aponte, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, et al.

Published: 2023-10-27
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biostatistics, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Monitoring, Population Biology, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models

Spatial patterns in population trends, particularly those at finer geographic scales, can help us better understand the factors driving population change in North American birds. The standard trend models for the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) were designed to estimate trends within broad geographic strata, such as countries, Bird Conservation Regions, U.S. states, and Canadian [...]

Uneven genetic data limits biodiversity assessments in protected areas globally

Ivan Paz-Vinas, Amy Vandergast, Chloe Schmidt, et al.

Published: 2023-10-26
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Policy, Genetics, Life Sciences

Increasing the extent of protected areas (PA) through 30x30 and other area-based conservation initiatives can help to achieve global biodiversity conservation goals across all biodiversity levels. However, intraspecific genetic variation, the foundational level of biodiversity, is rarely explicitly considered in PA design or quality performance assessments. Repurposing existing genetic data could [...]

Integration of multimodal cues does not alter mean but reduces among-study variance in avian responses to predators: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Kimberley Jean Mathot, Josué David Arteaga Torres, Anne Besson, et al.

Published: 2023-10-26
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Despite a wealth of studies documenting prey responses to perceived predation risk, researchers have only recently begun to consider how prey integrate information from multiple cues in their assessment of risk. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that experimentally manipulated perceived predation risk in birds and evaluate support for three alternative models of cue [...]

When the microbiome shapes the host: immune evolution implications for infectious disease

Mark Austin Hanson

Published: 2023-10-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Evolution, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Pathogenic Microbiology

The microbiome includes both “mutualist” and “pathogen” microbes, regulated by the same innate immune architecture. A major question has therefore been: how do hosts prevent pathogenic infections while maintaining beneficial microbes? One idea suggests hosts can selectively activate innate immunity upon pathogenic infection, but not mutualist colonisation. Another idea posits that hosts can [...]

Remote extracellular attacks on bacteriophage

Lisa Freund, Marie Vasse, Gregory J. Velicer

Published: 2023-10-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Bacteriophages and their hosts co-evolve while exploiting and defending against the other, respectively. Known anti-phage defences prevent attachment to the cell or target phage nucleic acids within the cell; variation in such defences shapes phage host range. While investigating the host range of the virulent myxophage Mx1 among natural isolates of the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, we [...]

Inferring the evolutionary history of the Sino-Himalayan biodiversity hotspot using Bayesian phylodynamics

Bethany Allen, Timothy Vaughan, Louis du Plessis, et al.

Published: 2023-10-14
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution

The current status of the Sino-Himalayan region as a biodiversity hotspot, particularly for flora, has often been linked to the uplift of the Sino-Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan and Hengduan Mountains. However, the relationship between the topological development of the region and the onset of diversification is yet to be confirmed. Here, we apply Bayesian phylodynamic methods to a large phylogeny [...]

Crop phenology reshapes the food-safety landscape for roe deer in an agroecosystem

Noa Rigoudy, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, A.J. Mark Hewison, et al.

Published: 2023-10-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Understanding the behavioural adjustments of wildlife in anthropized landscapes is key for promoting sustainable human-wildlife coexistence. Little is known, however, about how synanthropic species navigate spatio-temporal variation in the availability of food and cover that are shaped by human practices such as agriculture. Animal habitat use is predominantly driven by spatial and temporal [...]

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