Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

How much biodiversity is concealed in the word “biodiversity”?

Stefano Mammola, Caroline S. Fukushima, Girolama Biondo, et al.

Published: 2022-09-12
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Amidst a global biodiversity crisis, the word “biodiversity” has become indispensable for conservation and management. Yet, biodiversity is often used as a buzzword in scientific literature. Resonant titles of papers claiming to have studied “global biodiversity” may be used to promote research focused on a few taxonomic groups, regions, habitats, or facets of biodiversity [taxonomic, [...]

Publication bias impacts on effect size, statistical power, and magnitude (Type M) and sign (Type S) errors in ecology and evolutionary biology

Yefeng Yang, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Rose E O'Dea, et al.

Published: 2022-09-12
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

Collaborative assessments of direct replicability of empirical studies in the medical and social sciences have exposed alarmingly low rates of replicability, a phenomenon dubbed the ‘replication crisis’. Poor replicability has spurred cultural changes targeted at improving reliability in these disciplines. Given the absence of equivalent replication projects in ecology and evolutionary biology, [...]

Realising the potential of real-time online monitoring for conservation culturomics

Thomas Frederick Johnson, Richard Cornford, Shawn Dove, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Environmental monitoring is increasingly shifting towards a set of systems that describe changes in real-time. In ecology specifically, a series of challenges have prevented the roll-out of real-time monitoring for features such as biodiversity change or ecosystem service provision. Conservation culturomics, a field concerned with interactions between people and nature, is well-placed to [...]

Metamicrobiome-driven homeostasis of nutrient recycling

Inger de Jonge, Michiel Veldhuis, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, et al.

Published: 2022-09-08
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Carbon and nutrient recycling by free-living microbial decomposers and fire - two key recycling pathways - are highly sensitive to climatic variation. However, mutualistic associations of microbiomes with plants and animals cause previously underestimated environmental buffering effects. This close cooperation between small and large organisms solves a fundamental allometric trade-off between [...]

The role of hybrid seed inviability in angiosperm speciation

Jenn Coughlan

Published: 2022-09-02
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Understanding which reproductive barriers contribute to speciation is essential to understanding the diversity of life on earth. Several contemporary examples of strong hybrid seed inviability (HSI) between recently diverged species suggest that HSI may play a fundamental role in plant speciation. Yet, a broader synthesis of HSI is needed to clarify its role in diversification. Here, I review the [...]

Beyond Kuhnian Paradigms: Normal Science and Theory Dependence in Ecology

Craig A. Layman, Andrew L. Rypel

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn has influenced scientists for decades. It focuses on a progression of science involving periodic, fundamental shifts—revolutions—from one existing paradigm to another. Embedded in this theory is the concept of normal science, i.e., scientists focus on intricacies within the context of established theory, without challenging the underlying [...]

Unraveling the environment-phenotype-genotype nexus: examples, lessons and prospects from bird plumage colors

Rafael S Marcondes

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Connecting adaptive phenotypic variation to both its genetic and ecological bases is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. Birds, due to their ease of study and solid base of existing knowledge, present an ideal clade in which to advance that goal. Bird color traits in particular have a long tradition of being at the forefront of conceptual advances in evolutionary biology. Combined [...]

Randomization analyses in niche and distribution modeling

Dan L. Warren, Jamie M. Kass, Evan Economo

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

In the field of niche modeling, data are often subject to multiple interacting sources of uncertainty, bias, and autocorrelation that make them difficult to analyze using traditional statistical approaches. Randomization is often used in statistical tests in order to estimate distributions that are difficult to specify analytically. Decades of development in the niche modeling literature have [...]

Decoupled responses of biodiversity facets driven from anuran vulnerability to climate and land use changes

Karoline Ceron, Lilian Sales, Diego José Santana, et al.

Published: 2022-08-30
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Anthropogenic climate and land use changes are the main drivers of biodiversity loss, promoting a major reorganization of the biota in all ecosystems. Biodiversity loss implies not only in the loss of species, but also entails losses in other dimensions of biodiversity, such as functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity and the diversity of ecological interactions.Yet, each of those facets of [...]

Sampling strategy matters to accurately estimate response curves’ parameters in species distribution models

Manuele Bazzichetto, Jonathan Lenoir, Daniele Da Re, et al.

Published: 2022-08-27
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Aim: Assessing how different sampling strategies affect the accuracy and precision of species response curves estimated by parametric Species Distribution Models. Major taxa studied: Virtual plant species. Location: Abruzzo (Italy). Time period: Timeless (simulated data). Methods: We simulated the occurrence of two virtual species with different ecology (generalist vs specialist) and [...]

Bird Eye Color: A Rainbow of Variation, a Spectrum of Explanations

Eamon Callahan Corbett, Robb T. Brumfield, Brant C. Faircloth

Published: 2022-08-24
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Birds display a rainbow of eye colors, but this trait has received relatively little study compared to plumage coloration. Avian eye color variation occurs at all phylogenetic scales: it can be conserved throughout whole families or vary within a single species, yet the evolutionary importance of eye color variation within species and across the avian phylogeny is also understudied. Here, we [...]

The promise of an evolutionary perspective of alcohol consumption

Hans Hofmann, Benjamin Clites, Jonathan Pierce

Published: 2022-08-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Neuroscience and Neurobiology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Life Sciences, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

The urgent need for medical treatments of alcohol use disorders has motivated the search for novel molecular targets of alcohol response. Most studies exploit the strengths of lab animals without considering how these and other species may have adapted to respond to alcohol in an ecological context. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on the molecular and genetic underpinnings of alcohol [...]

A test of species’ mobility hypothesis in ecological niche modeling

Xiao Feng

Published: 2022-08-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Abstract Aim: Ecological niche model (ENM) or species distribution model is a modeling technique broadly used in ecology and biogeography and is increasingly used in decision-making regarding land use and biodiversity conservation. The methodology behind ENM applications is critical for model accuracy. One critical question that every ENM study faces is how to define a model training area. [...]

Dog days are over: climate change is predicted to cause population collapse in a cooperative breeder

Daniella Rabaiotti, Rosie Woodroffe, Tim Coulson

Published: 2022-08-17
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Population Biology

It has been suggested that animals may have evolved co-operative breeding strategies in response to extreme climatic conditions. Climate change, however, may push species beyond their ability to cope with extreme climates, and reduce the group sizes in co-operatively breeding species to a point where populations are no longer viable. Predicting the impact of future climates on these species is [...]

The Darwinian Core of Evolutionary Theory and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: Similarities and Differences

T. N. C. Vidya, Sutirth Dey, N. G. Prasad, et al.

Published: 2022-08-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

In this paper, we evaluate debates surrounding calls for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis in light of the Darwinian core of evolutionary theory, which was somewhat broader than the Modern Synthesis. We suggest that Darwin’s nuanced operationalization of natural selection rested upon two innovations: the atomization of individuals into trait-variants, and a reconceptualization of heredity in [...]

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