Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

When and how does photoinhibition matter for plant fitness?

Shan Kothari

Published: 2022-09-14
Subjects: Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology, Plant Biology, Plant Sciences, Population Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

The many biophysical factors that shape how plant species sort across environmental gradients may include photoinhibition, which I define broadly as oxidative damage that plants and other phototrophs risk incurring when they absorb excess light energy they cannot safely dissipate. Photoinhibition is seldom explicitly discussed as a potential driver of plant fitness and distributions. Here, I aim [...]

Effects of distinct data processing in the phylogenetic signature of foliar spectra of regenerating plants in Neotropical Forest gaps

Ecio Souza Diniz, Cibele Hummel do Amaral, Lucas Arthur de Almeida Telles, et al.

Published: 2022-09-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Important biochemical traits may be robustly mapped by optical spectroscopy, allowing inferences about phylogenetic conservation in plant species. However, distinct types of data processing might lead to distinct patterns of phylogenetic signal in the foliar spectra. Thus, investigate the standard analytical approaches in order to understand their influence over the phylogenetic signal is [...]

Foraging Efficiency and the Importance of Knowledge in Pemba, Tanzania: Implications for Childhood Evolution.

Ilaria Pretelli, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Bakar Makame Khamis, et al.

Published: 2022-09-13
Subjects: Anthropology, Behavior and Ethology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Childhood is a period of life unique to humans. Childhood may have evolved through the need to acquire knowledge and subsistence skills. In an attempt to evaluate the importance of learning for the evolution of childhood, previous research examined the increase with age of returns to foraging across various resources. Any increase could be due to increases in knowledge or other factors such as [...]

The evolution of eusociality: Kin selection theory, division of labour models, and evo-devo explanations

Jan Kreider, Ido Pen

Published: 2022-09-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

The evolution of eusociality has long been recognized as an evolutionary paradox. We identify three different but complementary approaches to the study of the evolution of eusociality. Kin selection models explain why individuals can evolve to have distinct reproductive or non-reproductive roles. Division of labour models elucidate how specialisation can emerge and evolve. Conceptual models from [...]

Spillover of human antivirals may promote resistant pathogens in animal reservoirs

Emma J. Rosi, Jerker B. Fick, Barbara Han

Published: 2022-09-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Health Life Sciences, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Other Immunology and Infectious Disease, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Novel viral pathogens are causing diseases to emerge in humans, a challenge to which society has responded with technological innovations such as antiviral therapies. Antivirals can be rapidly deployed to mitigate severe disease, and with vaccines, save human lives and provide a long-term safety net against new viral diseases. Yet with these advances come unforeseen consequences when antivirals [...]

How much biodiversity is concealed in the word “biodiversity”?

Stefano Mammola, Caroline S. Fukushima, Girolama Biondo, et al.

Published: 2022-09-12
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Amidst a global biodiversity crisis, the word “biodiversity” has become indispensable for conservation and management. Yet, biodiversity is often used as a buzzword in scientific literature. Resonant titles of papers claiming to have studied “global biodiversity” may be used to promote research focused on a few taxonomic groups, regions, habitats, or facets of biodiversity [taxonomic, [...]

Publication bias impacts on effect size, statistical power, and magnitude (Type M) and sign (Type S) errors in ecology and evolutionary biology

Yefeng Yang, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Rose E O'Dea, et al.

Published: 2022-09-12
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

Collaborative assessments of direct replicability of empirical studies in the medical and social sciences have exposed alarmingly low rates of replicability, a phenomenon dubbed the ‘replication crisis’. Poor replicability has spurred cultural changes targeted at improving reliability in these disciplines. Given the absence of equivalent replication projects in ecology and evolutionary biology, [...]

Realising the potential of real-time online monitoring for conservation culturomics

Thomas Frederick Johnson, Richard Cornford, Shawn Dove, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Environmental monitoring is increasingly shifting towards a set of systems that describe changes in real-time. In ecology specifically, a series of challenges have prevented the roll-out of real-time monitoring for features such as biodiversity change or ecosystem service provision. Conservation culturomics, a field concerned with interactions between people and nature, is well-placed to [...]

Metamicrobiome-driven homeostasis of nutrient recycling

Inger de Jonge, Michiel Veldhuis, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Carbon and nutrient recycling by free-living microbial decomposers and fire - two key recycling pathways - are highly sensitive to climatic variation. However, mutualistic associations of microbiomes with plants and animals cause previously underestimated environmental buffering effects. This close cooperation between small and large organisms solves a fundamental allometric trade-off between [...]

The role of hybrid seed inviability in angiosperm speciation

Jenn Coughlan

Published: 2022-09-03
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Understanding which reproductive barriers contribute to speciation is essential to understanding the diversity of life on earth. Several contemporary examples of strong hybrid seed inviability (HSI) between recently diverged species suggest that HSI may play a fundamental role in plant speciation. Yet, a broader synthesis of HSI is needed to clarify its role in diversification. Here, I review the [...]

Beyond Kuhnian Paradigms: Normal Science and Theory Dependence in Ecology

Craig A. Layman, Andrew L. Rypel

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn has influenced scientists for decades. It focuses on a progression of science involving periodic, fundamental shifts—revolutions—from one existing paradigm to another. Embedded in this theory is the concept of normal science, i.e., scientists focus on intricacies within the context of established theory, without challenging the underlying [...]

Unraveling the environment-phenotype-genotype nexus: examples, lessons and prospects from bird plumage colors

Rafael S Marcondes

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Connecting adaptive phenotypic variation to both its genetic and ecological bases is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. Birds, due to their ease of study and solid base of existing knowledge, present an ideal clade in which to advance that goal. Bird color traits in particular have a long tradition of being at the forefront of conceptual advances in evolutionary biology. Combined [...]

Randomization analyses in niche and distribution modeling

Dan L. Warren, Jamie M. Kass, Evan Economo

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

In the field of niche modeling, data are often subject to multiple interacting sources of uncertainty, bias, and autocorrelation that make them difficult to analyze using traditional statistical approaches. Randomization is often used in statistical tests in order to estimate distributions that are difficult to specify analytically. Decades of development in the niche modeling literature have [...]

Decoupled responses of biodiversity facets driven from anuran vulnerability to climate and land use changes

Karoline Ceron, Lilian Sales, Diego José Santana, et al.

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Anthropogenic climate and land use changes are the main drivers of biodiversity loss, promoting a major reorganization of the biota in all ecosystems. Biodiversity loss implies not only in the loss of species, but also entails losses in other dimensions of biodiversity, such as functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity and the diversity of ecological interactions.Yet, each of those facets of [...]

Sampling strategy matters to accurately estimate response curves’ parameters in species distribution models

Manuele Bazzichetto, Jonathan Lenoir, Daniele Da Re, et al.

Published: 2022-08-28
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Aim: Assessing how different sampling strategies affect the accuracy and precision of species response curves estimated by parametric Species Distribution Models. Major taxa studied: Virtual plant species. Location: Abruzzo (Italy). Time period: Timeless (simulated data). Methods: We simulated the occurrence of two virtual species with different ecology (generalist vs specialist) and [...]

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