Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

How can biodiversity strategy and action plans incorporate genetic diversity concerns, plans, policies, capacity, and commitments?

Sean Hoban, Christina Hvilsom, Aissi Abdeldjalil, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Globally, national, subnational, and supranational entities are creating Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans, to develop concrete commitments and actions to curb biodiversity loss, meet international obligations and achieve a society in harmony with nature. In light of policy makers' increasing recognition of genetic diversity in helping species and ecosystems adapt and be resilient during [...]

Effectiveness of toxic baiting for the control of canines and felines

Yong Zhi Foo, Daniel W.A. Noble, Patrick Leo Taggart

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Toxic baiting is used for the lethal control of mammalian predators. It is easily applied over large areas and can be highly effective, but also receives significant criticism. We conducted a meta-analysis of the efficacy of lethal baiting for the feral cat, red fox and dingo; our outcome of interest was predator survival. Our dataset contained 125 effects from 35 studies, comprising 1560 [...]

Why there are so many definitions of fitness in models

Daniel Jefferson Smith, Guilhem Doulcier, Pierrick Bourrat, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Biology, Computational Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Population Biology

“Fitness” quantifies the ability to survive and reproduce, but is operationalized in many different ways. Generally, short-term fitness (e.g., expected number of surviving offspring) is assigned to genotypes or phenotypes, and used to non-trivially derive longer-term operationalizations of fitness (e.g. fixation probability or sojourn time), providing insight as to which organismal strategies [...]

Searching for and Monitoring the Nests of Imperiled Grassland Birds: Recommendations from the Grand River Grasslands of Iowa

Jaime Jo Coon, Hannah K Grushon, Jennifer L Shamel, et al.

Published: 2024-04-05
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Grassland birds are the most imperiled avian group in North America, with greater than 50% abundance declines since 1970. Studies examining factors that impact habitat preferences, habitat selection, and reproductive success are critical to developing effective conservation and management plans for these species. These studies often involve searching for and monitoring nests in grasslands, which [...]

Interplay of abiotic, biotic, and individual factors in shaping individual growth and demography in a high-elevation common toad population

Omar Lenzi, Kurt Grossenbacher, Silvia Zumbach, et al.

Published: 2024-04-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Population Biology

1. Vital rates of individuals in natural populations, such as survival and breeding probabilities, can be affected by abiotic (i.e. environmental conditions), biotic (e.g. population density), and individual factors (i.e. individual traits). Many studies often consider the direct effects of one or two of these sources of vital-rate variations, but taking them all into account might reveal [...]

Acceleration and demographic rates behind bird decline in North America

François Leroy, Marta Jarzyna, Petr Keil

Published: 2024-04-04
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Acceleration of human activities over the past century might have caused a corresponding acceleration in the decline of abundance of species, but this has not been empirically assessed. Further, the temporal dynamics of abundance arises from a complex interaction between recruitment and loss of individuals, which remains unexplored across large spatial scales. We address these gaps by examining [...]

No place for phylogeny in structuring a sandy coastal plain community

Jose Eduardo Meireles

Published: 2024-04-04
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Although inference of assembly processes from phylogenetic patterns has become ubiquitous in community ecology, surprisingly few studies simultaneously test assumptions of such an approach and integrate over spatial scales and plant life stages. Here we investigate the roles of phylogeny, functional traits, and abiotic conditions in the spatial structuring of a sandy coastal plain community using [...]

Pollination across the diel cycle: a global meta-analysis

Liam Kendall, Charlie C Nicholson

Published: 2024-03-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

The daily transition between day and night, known as the diel cycle, is characterised by significant shifts in environmental conditions and biological activity, both of which can affect crucial ecosystem functions like pollination. Yet, despite over six decades of research into whether plant reproductive success varies between day and night, consensus remains elusive. We compiled and analysed the [...]

Predicting macroinvertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) at water quality monitoring sites in Japanese rivers

Yuichi Iwasaki, Tomomi Suemori, Yuta Kobayashi

Published: 2024-03-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Studies, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Freshwater ecosystems provide essential services for human well-being but are impacted by multiple anthropogenic stressors. Biomonitoring with bioindicators such as river macroinvertebrates is fundamental for assessing the status of freshwater systems. In Japan, water quality and biomonitoring surveys are conducted separately, leading to a lack of nationwide information on the biological status [...]

Blood lead increases and haemoglobin decreases in urban birds along a soil contamination gradient in a mining city

Max M Gillings, Riccardo Ton, Tiarne Harris, et al.

Published: 2024-03-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Lead contaminated soil is a persistent global threat to the health of animal populations. Nevertheless, links between soil lead and its adverse effects on exposed wildlife remain poorly understood. Here, we explore local geographic patterns of exposure in urban birds along a gradient of lead contamination in Broken Hill, an Australian mining city. Soil lead concentrations are linked to co-located [...]

Lianas, to cut or not to cut to conserve forest biodiversity?

Ricardo A. Moreno, Gabriel Ortega-Solis, Javier Godoy, et al.

Published: 2024-03-17
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Although lianas play an important role in forest composition, structure, and functions, they are considered as structural parasites of the tree-host. Both contrasting ideas on the role of lianas in forest ecosystems challenge the practitioners and decision might be taken without specific information. Here we present a preliminary result, applied in a unique, small, old-growth forest in the [...]

Not All Mass Mortality Events are Equal

Samantha Jean Sawyer, Micky D. Eubanks, Jeffery K. Tomberlin

Published: 2024-03-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Population Biology

Mass Mortality Events (MMEs) are defined as novel events involving many individuals dying in a relatively short period of time. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in MMEs due to their perceived increase in frequency. Current definitions are subjective and categorize mortalities varying in magnitude and frequency together. Within this manuscript, Multiple Mortality Events is a [...]

Satellite images reveal major discrepancies between mapped and operating wind turbines in a hotspot of wind energy development

Jacopo Cerri, Chiara Costantino, Davide De Rosa, et al.

Published: 2024-03-13
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Wind energy is an emerging challenge for biodiversity conservation, due to its impacts on habitats and species. Therefore, effective mitigation and zonation policies require accurate maps of operating wind turbines. However, the current pace of wind energy development raises doubts on how fast existing maps can become obsolete. We used freely available satellite imagery from Google to check the [...]

Temperature drives the divergent evolution of male harm to females

Claudia Londoño-Nieto, Michael Butler, Roberto García-Roa, et al.

Published: 2024-03-12
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution

Strong sexual selection promotes population viability and evolvability, but sexual conflict can offset such benefits. Male harm adaptations leading to pre-copulatory (i.e. harassment) and/or copulatory (i.e. traumatic insemination) harm to females are taxonomically widespread, depress population growth, and can affect the dynamics of adaptation and evolutionary rescue, but we largely ignore what [...]

Community-wide masting improves predator satiation in North American oaks

Jakub Szymkowiak, Michał Bogdziewicz, Shealyn Marino, et al.

Published: 2024-03-12
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Mast seeding, a phenomenon observed in numerous perennial plant species, is highly variable reproduction across years, synchronized among individuals within a population. One major fitness advantage of masting lies in the reduction of seed predation rates, achieved through alternating phases of seed scarcity and abundance that starve and subsequently satiate seed consumers. Proximately, the [...]

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