Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Accounting for cloud cover and circannual variation puts the effect of lunar phase on deer-vehicle collisions into perspective

Jacopo Cerri, Laura Stendardi, Elena Bužan, et al.

Published: 2022-11-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Zoology

Although several studies have focused on the influence of moonlight over deer-vehicle collisions, findings have been inconsistent. This may be due to neglecting the effects of cloud cover, a major impediment to moon illumination, and circannual variation in both deer and human activity. We modeled how median cloud cover interacted with the illuminated fraction of the moon in affecting daily roe [...]

On The Origin of Speciation

Kenji Hayashida

Published: 2022-11-21
Subjects: Life Sciences

Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution that natural selection leads to the evolution of organisms in "On the Origin of Species”, but did not show the mechanism by which new species differentiate and fix. Speciation requires a system in which genes are not mixed by interspecific hybridization, and reproductive isolation, especially postmating reproductive isolation, is considered to be [...]

A tale of two genomes: What drives mitonuclear discordance in asexual lineages of a freshwater snail?

Maurine Neiman, Joel Sharbrough

Published: 2022-11-21
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

We use genomic information to tell us stories of evolutionary origins. But what does it mean when different genomes report wildly different accounts of lineage history? This “discordance” can be a consequence of a fascinating suite of natural history and evolutionary phenomena, from the different inheritance mechanisms of nuclear vs. cytoplasmic genomes to hybridization and introgression to [...]

Understanding the systematics and evolution of Vaccinium sect. Cyanococcus (Ericaceae): progress and prospects

Peter Warren Fritsch, Andrew A Crowl, Hamid Ashrafi, et al.

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Life Sciences

The true blueberries (Vaccinium sect. Cyanococcus; Ericaceae) comprise a clade of about nine to 24 species distributed mainly in eastern temperate North America, with one species reaching farther west. Despite extensive study, the systematics and evolution of the group are still poorly understood. Limited morphological variation, multiple ploidy levels of uncertain origin, and natural [...]

Few studies of wild animal performance account for parasite infections: a systematic review

Emmanuelle Chrétien, Jeremy De Bonville, Joëlle Guitard, et al.

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Wild animals have parasites. This inconvenient truth has far-reaching implications for biologists measuring animal performance traits: infection with parasites can alter host behaviour and physiology in profound and sometimes counterintuitive ways. Yet, to what extent do studies on wild animals take individual infection status into account? 2. We performed a systematic review across eight [...]

High cryptic diversity in a caddisfly that co-occurs in lakes and streams

Christine Ann Parisek, Michael P Marchetti, Matthew R Cover

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Lake and stream fauna are frequently studied, yet surprisingly little is known about ecological and evolutionary dynamics of species that inhabit both lentic and lotic habitats. There are few examples of species co-occurring in the different habitat flow types, which raises questions on how this may impact their ability to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The aquatic insect Limnephilus [...]

A Review: Comparative Genomics and Physiology of Parity Mode Evolution in Amniotes

Maggs X

Published: 2022-11-18
Subjects: Life Sciences

Across amniotes, squamates represent the only clade with highly variable parity modes, oviparity (egg-laying) and viviparity (live-birth). Despite this, relatively little is known about how oviparity and viviparity evolve at the genomic and physiological levels in squamates. Within the context of interdisciplinary medical, poultry science, and reproductive biology literature, I review the [...]

Misrepresenting biases in arrival: a comment on Svensson (2022)

Alejandro Cano, Alejandro Couce, Joanna Masel, et al.

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

The idea that adaptive change is subject to biases in variation by a "first come, first served" dynamic is not part of classic evolutionary reasoning. Yet, predictable effects of biases in the introduction of variation have been reported in models of population genetics, in laboratory evolution, and in retrospective analyses of natural adaptation. This effect of "arrival bias" has potentially [...]

Rethinking convergence in plant parasitism integrating molecular and population genetic processes

Liming Cai

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

The need for photosynthesis has largely shaped the body plan, physiology, as well as gene repertoire of seed plants. However, shifts to a heterotrophic lifestyle have independently evolved twelve times in more than four thousand parasitic plants. Among these parasites, otherwise rare features have evolved repetitively at both the molecular and phenotypical levels, including reduced vegetative [...]

Rock climbing affects cliff-plant communities by reducing species diversity and altering species coexistence patterns

Martí March-Salas, Felipe Morales-Armijo, Juan Antonio Hernández-Agüero, et al.

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Life Sciences

Cliffs are unique ecosystems with an outstanding but relatively unknown plant diversity, harboring rare, endemic and threatened species, but also common and dominant species. The rising popularity of climbing represents an increasing threat to cliff biota, potentially diminishing diversity and species associations, and affecting the community composition. We used a novel closely paired sampling [...]

Colombia reached 30 % of land and ocean conservation area. Megadiverse countries are hitting targets but missing the point

Andres Felipe Suarez-Castro, Sofia Lopez-Cubillos, Jaime Burbano Girón, et al.

Published: 2022-11-08
Subjects: Life Sciences

The global target to protect 30% of Earth’s land and ocean by 2030 has prompted governments to report their progress in biodiversity conservation. Announcements of countries reaching 30 % of conservation area are widely commended by the international community, despite signs of increasing pressures within protected areas, poor representativity of key threatened ecosystems, and a lack of [...]

Evolutionary origins of the Mesoamerican-eastern United States floristic disjunction: current status and future prospects

Gregory W Stull

Published: 2022-11-07
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Biogeographic disjunction patterns, where multiple taxonomic groups are shared between isolated geographic areas, represent excellent systems for investigating the historical assembly of modern biotas as well as fundamental biological processes such as speciation, diversification, niche evolution, and evolutionary responses to climate change. Studies on plant genera disjunct across the Northern [...]

CONFOUND IT! The taxonomy of plants mistaken for Cistanthe arenaria (Cham.) Carolin ex Hershk. [MONTIACEAE, Cistanthe sect. Rosulatae (Reiche) Hershk.]

Mark Alan Hershkovitz

Published: 2022-11-04
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Cistanthe arenaria (Cham.) Carolin ex Hershk. is a species of Montiaceae distributed from Chile’s Maule to Araucanía Regions. But the name historically and currently has been applied also to readily distinct species distributed from the Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins to Coquimbo Regions: C. chamissoi (Barnéoud) Carolin ex Hershk., C. trigona (Bertero ex Colla) Carolin ex Hershk, C. [...]

The consequences of synthetic auxin herbicide on plant-herbivore interactions

Nia Johnson, Grace Zhang, Anah Soble, et al.

Published: 2022-11-03
Subjects: Life Sciences

Although herbicide drift is a common side effect of herbicide application in agroecosystems, its effects on the ecology and evolution of natural communities are rarely studied. A recent shift to dicamba, a synthetic auxin herbicide known for ‘drifting’ to nontarget areas necessitates the examination of drift effects on the plant-insect interactions that drive eco-evo dynamics in weed communities. [...]

Assessing the aesthetic attractivity of European butterflies: a web-based survey protocol

Elia van Tongeren, Ginevra Sistri, Vincenzo Zingaro, et al.

Published: 2022-11-03
Subjects: Biodiversity, Entomology, Life Sciences, Zoology

Aesthetic attractivity stands as an underestimated yet fundamental feature of species in conservation biology, significantly driving disproportionate protection efforts towards charismatic species. Despite the evidence, few attempts sought to precisely quantify the impact of aesthetic attractivity in defining priority of species for conservation actions (e.g. inclusion in International Union for [...]

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