Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Metabolic division of labor in social insects

Matteo A Negroni, Adria C LeBoeuf

Published: 2023-01-14
Subjects: Life Sciences

Social insects are known for reproductive and behavioral division of labor, but little attention has been paid to metabolic forms of division of labor. Metabolic division of labor is the partitioning of complementary metabolic tasks between individuals within the colony, and it is widespread in social insects. Here we pinpoint trophallaxis, trophic eggs and cannibalism as the most well-studied [...]

Social regulation of reproduction: control or signal?

Chiara Benvenuto, Maria Cristina Lorenzi

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Traditionally, dominant breeders have been considered able to control other individuals’ reproduction in multi-member groups with high variance in reproductive success/reproductive skew (e.g., forced sterility on subordinate conspecifics in eusocial animals; suppression of sex change in sequential hermaphrodites). These actions are typically presented as active impositions by reproductively [...]

Quantitative evidence synthesis: a practical guide on meta-analysis, meta-regression, and publication bias tests for environmental sciences

Shinichi Nakagawa, Yefeng Yang, Erin L Macartney, et al.

Published: 2023-01-07
Subjects: Life Sciences

Meta-analysis is a quantitative way of synthesizing results from multiple studies to obtain reliable evidence of an intervention or phenomenon. Indeed, an increasing number of meta-analyses are conducted in environmental sciences, and resulting meta-analytic evidence is often used in environmental policies and decision-making. We conducted a survey of recent meta-analyses in environmental [...]

orchaRd 2.0: An R package for visualizing meta-analyses with orchard plots

Shinichi Nakagawa, Malgorzata Lagisz, Rose E O'Dea, et al.

Published: 2023-01-07
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Although meta-analysis has become an essential tool in ecology and evolution, reporting of meta-analytic results can still be much improved. To aid this, we have introduced the orchard plot, which presents not only overall estimates and their confidence intervals but also shows corresponding heterogeneity (as prediction intervals) and individual effect sizes. 2. Here, we have added [...]

Dominant attitudes and values towards wildlife and the environment in coastal Alabama

Sarah Weber Hertel, Jana Stupavsky, Kristine Alford, et al.

Published: 2023-01-03
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biology, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Surveys assessing attitudes and values about the environment can help predict human behavior towards wildlife and develop effective conservation goals alongside local communities. Southern Alabama is a hotspot for biodiversity and endemism in the United States and is in need of studies to protect its wildlife. Land and wildlife management practices in Alabama have moved from indigenous-led [...]

Psychological and Cultural Factors Influencing Antibiotic Prescription

Francisco Dionisio

Published: 2023-01-02
Subjects: Biology, Economics, Geography, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Psychiatry and Psychology, Psychology, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Humans have inundated the environment worldwide with antimicrobials for about one century, giving selective advantage to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, antibiotic resistance has become a public health problem responsible for increased mortality, and extended hospital stays because the efficacy of antibiotics has diminished. Hospitals and other clinical settings have implemented [...]

ForageFeeder: a low-cost open source feeder for randomly distributing food

Maggie Zhang, Andrew Kyle Schulz, Josh Meyerchick, et al.

Published: 2022-12-30
Subjects: Animal Experimentation and Research, Life Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Automated feeders have long fed mice, livestock, and poultry, but are incapable of feeding zoo animals such as gorillas. Gorilla food, consisting of cut vegetables and fruits, is too large to be dispensed by automated feeders. Instead gorillas are manually at a set time and location, which decreases the exercise and enrichment that accompanies their natural foraging. We designed and built [...]

Like little lagoons: the contribution of valli da pesca to the Ecosystem Services supply of the Venice Lagoon

Alice Stocco, Laura Basconi, Silvia Rova, et al.

Published: 2022-12-23
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

The Venice lagoon social-ecological system is characterized by a strong relationship between the natural environment and human activities. This is especially noticeable in the aquaculture and hunting reserves of the lagoon, locally known as valli da pesca. Previous works about Ecosystem Services (ESs) in the Venice lagoon focused on the so-called “open lagoon”, overlooking the role of the valli [...]

Use of Airborne Laser Scanning to assess effects of understorey vegetation structure on nest-site selection and breeding performance in an Australian passerine bird

Richard S. Turner, Ophélie J. D. Lasne, Kara N. Youngentob, et al.

Published: 2022-12-18
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology

In wild bird populations, the structure of vegetation around nest-sites can influence the risk of predation of dependent young offspring, generating selection for breeding birds to choose nest-sites with vegetation characteristics associated with lower predation rates. However, for researchers, vegetation structure can be difficult to quantify objectively in the field, which might explain why [...]

How do monomorphic bacteria evolve? The *Mycobacterium tuberculosis* complex and the awkward population genetics of extreme clonality

Sebastien Gagneux, Christoph Stritt

Published: 2022-12-15
Subjects: Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Pathogenic Microbiology, Population Biology

Exchange of genetic material through sexual reproduction or horizontal gene transfer is ubiquitous in nature. Among the few outliers that rarely recombine and mainly evolve by *de novo* mutation are a group of deadly bacterial pathogens, including the causative agents of leprosy, plague, typhoid, and tuberculosis. The interplay of evolutionary processes is poorly understood in these organisms. [...]

Evaluating top-down, bottom-up, and environmental drivers of pelagic food web dynamics along an estuarine gradient

Tanya L Rogers, Samuel M Bashevkin, Christina E Burdi, et al.

Published: 2022-12-15
Subjects: Aquaculture and Fisheries Life Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Identification of the key biotic and abiotic drivers within food webs is important for understanding species abundance changes in ecosystems, particularly across ecotones where there may be strong variation in interaction strengths. Using structural equation models and four decades of integrated data from the San Francisco Estuary, we investigated the relative effects of top-down, bottom-up, and [...]

An Annotated Checklist of Lichens of the Opal Creek Wilderness and Adjacent Areas: a Pre-Fire Baseline

John Villella, Lalita Calabria, Bruce McCune, et al.

Published: 2022-12-15
Subjects: Life Sciences

In 2020 the Beachie Creek Fire burned a large area of forest in the northern Oregon Cascade Range including public and private land and much of the Opal Creek Wilderness. We compiled a baseline data set from various sources of the lichens known to occur before the fire within this area. These data are presented as an annotated species checklist documenting two hundred and eighty species. Euopsis [...]

Habitat destruction threatens jaguars in a mixed land use region of eastern Bolivia

René Meißner, Moritz Blumer, Merlin Weiß, et al.

Published: 2022-12-14
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Zoology

Large carnivores such as the jaguar (Panthera onca) are particularly susceptible to population decline and local extinction as a result of habitat loss. Here, we report on the long-term monitoring of a local jaguar population in a mixed land use area in the eastern lowlands of Bolivia from March 2017 to December 2019. We recorded 15 jaguar individuals and four reproduction events (five offspring [...]

Exploratory personality is independent of telomere dynamics in a wild bird population

Tara Cox, Thomas J Brown, Alexandra M Sparks, et al.

Published: 2022-12-14
Subjects: Life Sciences

Numerous studies have demonstrated that individuals within a species will consistently vary between one another in behavioural traits. A prominent adaptive explanation for such ‘animal personalities’ relates to an individual’s intrinsic state driving and/or being driven by behaviour. Telomeres – the protective caps at the end of chromosomes which exist in most organisms – have been proposed as a [...]

Advances in the reconstruction of the Spider Tree of Life: a roadmap for spider systematics and comparative studies

Siddharth Kulkarni, Hannah Wood, Gustavo Hormiga

Published: 2022-12-14
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Evolution, Genomics, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

In the last decade and a half, advances in genetic sequencing technologies have revolutionized systematics, transforming the field as studying morphological characters; a few genetic markers have given way to genomic data sets in the phylogenomic era. A plethora of molecular phylogenetic studies on many taxonomic groups have come about, converging on, or refuting prevailing morphology or [...]

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