Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

The changing landscape of text mining - a review of approaches for ecology and evolution

Maxwell J Farrell, Nicolas Le Guillarme, Liam Brierley, et al.

Published: 2024-02-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

In ecology and evolutionary biology, synthesis and modelling of data from published literature is a common practice for generating insight and testing theories across systems. However, the tasks of searching, screening, and extracting data from literature are often arduous. Researchers may manually process hundreds to thousands of articles for systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and compiling [...]

Environmental Stress, Bacterial Cell Differentiation, and Antimicrobial Resistance

Fernando Baquero, Ana Moreno-Blanco, Rosa del-Campo

Published: 2024-02-20
Subjects: Life Sciences

Environmental stress, either natural or anthropogenic, influences both the form and function of bacterial cells. The general stress adaptive response of bacteria alters the bacterial shape, resulting in functional changes, as the bacterial cell has associated “organules” and molecular interactions that are dependent on the cell’s topology. These changes in form and function are frequently linked [...]

Reporting guidelines for terrestrial respirometry: Building openness, transparency of metabolic and evaporative water loss data

Nicholas C. Wu, Lesley Ann Alton, Rafael P Bovo, et al.

Published: 2024-02-20
Subjects: Animal Experimentation and Research, Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences

Respirometry is an important procedure for understanding whole-animal energy and water balance. Consequently, the growing number of studies using respirometry over the last decade warrants reliable reporting and data sharing for effective research synthesis and dissemination. We provide a checklist guideline on five key areas to facilitate the transparency and reproducibly of respirometry [...]

Tempo and mode of diapause evolution in butterflies

Sridhar Halali, Etka Yapar, Christopher Wheat, et al.

Published: 2024-02-19
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Life Sciences

Quantifying the tempo and mode via modern phylogenetic comparative methods can provide crucial insights into the role of selection and constraints in trait evolution. Here we elucidate the evolution of diapause, a complex and defining life-history trait that allows temporal escape from unfavorable conditions in many insects, including our model system, butterflies. Using a thorough literature [...]

Energetic costs of mounting an immune response in a coral reef damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis)

Marie Levet, Dominique G. Roche, Shaun S Killen, et al.

Published: 2024-02-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

While immune responses can be energetically costly, quantifying these costs is challenging. We tested the metabolic costs of immune activation in damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis Bleeker, 1868) following a mass-adjusted injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin. Fish were divided into eight treatments: two controls (handling and saline injection) and six LPS groups with concentrations [...]

Theoretical research to extract, combine and generate concepts for understanding life phenomena

Y Nishida

Published: 2024-02-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

Living systems evolve through interactions with the environment, which are nonequilibrium processes that resist the law of increasing entropy in the environment and maintain their organization by exhausting an entropy inflow from the environment. Although several principles have been proposed to explain the nonequilibrium processes of living systems and the mechanism of entropy extraction, a [...]

Loring Pond Duckweed Abundance and Diversity Assessment Via By-Catch of Surface Skimming, and Suitability of Compost for Organic Gardens

Brianna Matchette

Published: 2024-02-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

Duckweed are tiny aquatic plants that are part of the Lemnaceae family including five genera: Lemna, Landoltia, Spirodela, Wolffia, and Wolfiella. Previous research has shown duckweed to have strong properties of phytoremediation of heavy metals and other pollutants (Ekperusi et al., 2019). Here we examine Loring Pond, an urban pond in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that is partially covered by [...]

Reduced plasticity and variance in physiological rates of ectotherm populations under climate change

Daniel W.A. Noble, Fonti Kar, Alex Bush, et al.

Published: 2024-02-17
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Climate change is expected to result in warmer and more variable thermal environments globally. Greater thermal variability is expected to result in strong selection pressures leading to genetic adaptation and/or the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Such responses depend on genetic and phenotypic variability. However, most work has focused on changes in mean phenotypic responses to [...]

Why are trees hollow? Termites, microbes, and tree internal stem damage in a tropical savanna

Abbey R Yatsko, Baptiste Wijas, Jed Calvert, et al.

Published: 2024-02-15
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Wood plays a vital role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, serving as a significant carbon store that is then released back to the atmosphere during decomposition. Decomposition has largely been studied in fallen and standing deadwood; however, decomposition can occur within living trees via hollowing by wood-feeding termites and microbial heart rot. Internal stem damage is difficult to measure, [...]

The ecology of ageing in wild societies: linking age structure and social behaviour in natural populations

Joe Peter Woodman, Samin Gokcekus, Kristina B Beck, et al.

Published: 2024-02-14
Subjects: Life Sciences

The age of individuals has consequences not only for their fitness and behaviour, but also for the functioning of the groups they form. Because social behaviour often changes with age, population age structure is expected to shape the social organisation, the social environments individuals experience, and the operation of social processes within populations. Although research has explored [...]

Probing the functional significance of wild animal microbiomes using omics data

Sarah F Worsley, Florent Mazel, Elin Videvall, et al.

Published: 2024-02-13
Subjects: Life Sciences

Host-associated microbiomes are thought to play a key role in host physiology and fitness, but this conclusion mainly derives from studies of a handful of animal models and humans. To test the generality of this conclusion, studies in non-model and wild animals are needed. However, whilst microbiome taxonomic diversity has recently received much attention, characterization of its functional [...]

Smartphones as a new tool for biodiversity research

Peter Dietrich, Jan Bumberger, Stanley Harpole, et al.

Published: 2024-02-13
Subjects: Life Sciences

Assessing the risk of climate maladaptation for Canadian polar bears

Ruth Rivkin, Evan Richardson, Joshua Miller, et al.

Published: 2024-02-10
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Abstract The Arctic is warming four times faster than the rest of the world, threatening the persistence of Arctic species. It is uncertain if Arctic wildlife will have sufficient time to adapt to such rapidly warming environments. We used genetic forecasting to measure the risk of maladaptation to warming temperatures and sea ice loss in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled across the Canadian [...]

Balancing production and environmental outcomes in Australia’s tropical savanna under global change

Rebecca K Runting, Darran King, Martin Nolan, et al.

Published: 2024-02-10
Subjects: Life Sciences

Livestock production is an integral part of the global food system and the livelihoods of local people, but it also raises issues of environmental sustainability due to issues such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity decline, land degradation, and water use. Further challenges to the social and environmental sustainability of extensive livestock systems may arise from changes in [...]

Barcoding Brazilian mammals to monitor biological diversity and threats: trends, perspectives, and knowledge gaps

Hernani Oliveira, Geraldo Brito Freire-Jr., Daiana Cardoso Silva, et al.

Published: 2024-02-10
Subjects: Life Sciences

DNA barcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA) represent an important advance for biomonitoring the world's biodiversity and its threats. However, these methods are highly dependent on the presence of species sequences on molecular databases. Brazil is one of the largest and most biologically diverse countries in the world. However, many knowledge gaps still exist for the description, identification, [...]

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