Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

The role of basic sciences in addressing global challenges to sustainable development: experiences from CIFOR-ICRAF

Eureka Emefa Ahadjie Adomako, Leigh Ann Winowiecki, Aster Gebrekirstos, et al.

Published: 2023-04-24
Subjects: Life Sciences

Human-induced global challenges, including climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation and broken food systems, militate against the attainment of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Centre for International Forestry Research and World Agroforestry (CIFOR-ICRAF) has, for many decades, worked in support of research in development initiatives aimed at addressing [...]

Killer prey: Temperature reverses future bacterial predation

Marie Vasse, Francesca Fiegna, Ben Kriesel, et al.

Published: 2023-04-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Ecological variation influences the character of many biotic interactions, but examples of predator-prey reversal mediated by abiotic context are few. We show that the temperature at which prey grow before interacting with a predatory bacterial species can determine the very direction of predation, reversing the identities of predator and prey. When lawns of Pseudomonas fluorescens were reared at [...]

Vicuña antipredator diel migration drives spatial nutrient subsidies in a high Andean ecosystem

Julia D. Monk, Emiliano Donadio, Pablo F. Gregorio, et al.

Published: 2023-04-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Spatial subsidies of nutrients within and among ecosystems have profound effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Large animals can be important drivers of nutrient transport as they ingest resources in some habitats and release them in others, even moving nutrients against elevational gradients. In high Andean deserts, vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) navigate a landscape of fear by migrating [...]

Implementing a rapid geographic range expansion - the role of behavior changes

Corina J Logan, Kelsey McCune, Christa LeGrande-Rolls, et al.

Published: 2023-04-12
Subjects: Biology, Life Sciences

It is generally thought that behavioral flexibility, the ability to change behavior when circumstances change, plays an important role in the ability of species to rapidly expand their geographic range. Great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) are a social, polygamous species that is rapidly expanding its geographic range by settling in new areas and habitats. They are behaviorally flexible [...]

Metabolic consequences of sex-reversal in two lizard species: a test of the like genotype and like phenotype hypotheses

Kristoffer H Wild, John H Roe, Lisa Schwanz, et al.

Published: 2023-04-06
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Vertebrate sex is typically determined genetically, but in many ectotherms sex can be determined by genes (Genetic Sex Determination: GSD), temperature (Temperature-dependent Sex Determination: TSD), or interactions between genes and temperature during development. Temperature dependent sex determination may involve GSD systems with either male or female heterogamety (XX/XY or ZZ/ZW) where [...]

Yield declines and producer responses to shifting climate and economic conditions in Mexican coffee production

Katherine Ennis, Paulo Quadri, Kai Zhu, et al.

Published: 2023-04-06
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geography, Life Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Other Environmental Sciences

Coffee’s climate sensitivity contributes to extreme production and price fluctuations. However, as coffee is a perennial crop, producers have difficulty responding to short-term market shifts. Combining historical climate, production and price data from all coffee-growing municipalities in Mexico, we examined trends of climate and coffee production and then characterized and quantified coffee [...]

Geographic, seasonal and ontogenetic variations of δ15N and δ13C of Japanese sardine explained by baseline variations and diverse fish movements

Tatsuya Sakamoto, Taketoshi Kodama, Sachiko Horii, et al.

Published: 2023-04-05
Subjects: Life Sciences, Marine Biology

Understanding and predicting variability in the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C, respectively) of small pelagic fish is crucial to enable isotopic studies of a variety of marine predators that feed on them. However, because the isotope ratios reflect plastic feeding habits and fish migration in addition to baseline variation, their predictions require a mechanistic [...]

Replicated radiations in the South American Marsh Pitcher genus Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae) lead to convergent carnivorous trap morphologies

Sukuan Liu, Stacey D. Smith

Published: 2023-04-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

The evolution of carnivorous pitcher traps across multiple angiosperm lineages represents a classic example of morphological convergence. Nevertheless, no comparative study to-date has examined pitcher evolution from a quantitative morphometric perspective. In the present study, we used comparative morphometric approaches to quantify the shape space occupied by Heliamphora pitchers and to trace [...]

Litter quality outweighs climate as a driver of decomposition across the tundra biome

Haydn J.D. Thomas, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Toke T. Høye, et al.

Published: 2023-03-30
Subjects: Life Sciences

Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the strength, direction and relative importance of the drivers of decomposition in the tundra biome, partly due to a lack of coordinated decomposition field studies in this remote environment. Here, we analysed 3717 incubations of two uniform litter types, green and rooibos tea, buried at 330 circum-Arctic and alpine sites to quantify the effects of [...]

Evolution of chemodiversity - From verbal to quantitative models

Frans Matthias Thon, Caroline Müller, Meike J. Wittmann

Published: 2023-03-28
Subjects: Biology, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Plants harbour an astonishing amount of chemodiversity, i.e., diversity of specialized metabolites, at different scales. For instance, individual plants can produce a large number of different specialized metabolites and individuals in a population can differ in their metabolite composition. Given the ecological and economic importance of plant chemodiversity, it is important to understand how it [...]

Developing systems theory in soil agroecology: Incorporating heterogeneity and dynamic instability

Nicholas Medina, John Vandermeer

Published: 2023-03-22
Subjects: Agriculture, Applied Mathematics, Biogeochemistry, Biology, Dynamic Systems, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Soil Science, Sustainability

Ecosystem management is integral to the future of soils, yet anthropogenic drivers represent a key source of uncertainty in ecosystem models. First- and new-generation soil models formulate many soil pools using first-order decomposition, which tends to generate simpler yet numerous parameters. Systems or complexity theory, developed across various scientific and social fields, may help improve [...]

Bacterial Subcellular Architecture, Structural Epistasis, and Antibiotic Resistance

Fernando Baquero, Jose-Luis Martínez, Alvaro Sanchez, et al.

Published: 2023-03-21
Subjects: Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences

Epistasis refers to how genetic interactions between some genetic loci affect phenotypes and fitness. In this study, we propose the concept “structural epistasis” to emphasize the role of the variable physical interactions between molecules located at particular spaces inside the bacterial cell in the emergence of novel phenotypes. The architecture of the bacterial cell (typically a [...]

Breaking down microbial hierarchies

Snorre Sulheim, Sara Mitri

Published: 2023-03-21
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Microbiology

Microbial communities that degrade natural polysaccharides are thought to have a hierarchical organization and one-way positive interactions from higher to lower trophic levels. Daniels et al. have recently shown that reciprocal interactions between trophic levels can occur and that these interactions change over the duration of a batch culture.

Allelopathy-selected microbiomes mitigate chemical inhibition of plant performance

Daniel Philip Revillini, Aaron S. David, Carolina Vigo, et al.

Published: 2023-03-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Plant Sciences, Plant Biology

Allelopathy is a common and important stressor that shapes plant communities and can alter soil microbiomes, yet little is known about the direct effects of allelochemical addition on bacterial and fungal communities or the potential for allelochemical-selected microbiomes to mediate plant performance responses, especially in habitats naturally structured by allelopathy. Here we present the first [...]

Fragmentation disrupts microbial effects on native plant community productivity

Kasey N Kiesewetter, Leydiana Otano, Michelle E Afkhami

Published: 2023-03-19
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences

1. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation – the breaking up of natural landscapes – is a pervasive threat to biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide. Fragmentation results in a mosaic of remnant native habitat patches embedded in human-modified habitat known as the “matrix”. By introducing novel environmental conditions in matrix habitats and reducing connectivity of native habitats, [...]


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