Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

A framework for improving the reproducibility of data extraction for meta-analysis

Edward Richard Ivimey-Cook, Daniel W.A. Noble, Shinichi Nakagawa, et al.

Published: 2022-12-14
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Psychology, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Extracting data from studies is the norm in meta-analyses, enabling researchers to generate effect sizes when raw data are otherwise not available. While there has been a general push for increased reproducibility throughout the many facets of meta-analysis, the transparency and reproducibility of the data extraction phase are still lagging be- hind. This particular meta-analytic facet is [...]

How the noises could affect marine food webs? A lack of zooplankton’s studies.

Loïc Prosnier

Published: 2022-12-13
Subjects: Life Sciences

There is a growing interest in the effects of noise pollution on marine ecosystems. To date, these works mainly focus on hearing species, especially fish and mammals. Because these species are generally at the upper trophic levels, key species from lower levels, like zooplankton species, are less studied under noise effects. Zooplankton is already used as bioindicators, to understand fluxes, [...]

Co-crediting system for carbon and biodiversity

Leho Tedersoo, Jaan Sepping, Alexey S Morgunov, et al.

Published: 2022-12-13
Subjects: Life Sciences

Carbon crediting and land offsets for biodiversity protection are implemented to tackle the challenges of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and loss of global biodiversity, but these two mechanisms are not optimal when considered separately. Focusing solely on carbon capture – the primary goal of most carbon-focused offsetting commitments – often results in the establishment of non-native, [...]

Offspring sex ratio increases with male reproductive success in the polygynous southern elephant seals

Hassen Allegue, Christophe Guinet, Samantha C. Patrick, et al.

Published: 2022-12-10
Subjects: Life Sciences

In polygynous species, most dominant males sire a disproportionate number of offspring and dominance rank is assumed to be age dependent. Yet, extreme inter-male competition and high early male mortality prevent most males from reaching a social status that could guaranty a high reproductive success. Alternative reproductive tactics may have evolved to maximize male reproductive success despite a [...]

Imagining Kant’s Theory of Scientific Knowledge: Philosophy and Education in Microbiology

Fernando Baquero

Published: 2022-12-10
Subjects: Education, Life Sciences

In the field of observational and experimental natural sciences (as is the case for microbiology), recent decades have been overinfluenced by overwhelming technological advances, and the space of abstraction has been frequently disdained. However, the predictable future of biological sciences should necessarily recover the synthetic dimension of “natural philosophy”. We should understand the [...]

Comprehensive biodiversity survey of Wategora Reserve and Everley Park along Duck River, western Sydney

Thomas Mesaglio

Published: 2022-12-09
Subjects: Life Sciences

Although much of suburban Sydney is heavily urbanised, there are also many pockets of remnant vegetation scattered throughout the region, even in the most built-up areas. From 2020-2022 I conducted a comprehensive biodiversity survey of Wategora Reserve, and the riparian vegetation adjacent to Everley Park directly south of the reserve, a small fragment of remnant bushland on the western bank of [...]

Power and limitations of the mutations-area relationship to assess within-species genetic diversity targets for post-2020 Sustainable Development Goals

Moises Exposito-Alonso, Jeffrey Spence, Megan Ruffley, et al.

Published: 2022-12-09
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

To evaluate the United Nation’s preliminary post-2020 sustainable goals on protecting high levels of genetic diversity per species, Exposito-Alonso et al. (2022) proposed a new framework to predict a species’ loss of genetic diversity given its loss of habitat area. This method, called the mutations-area relationship (MAR), is analogous to the species-area relationship (SAR), often used to assess [...]

Parasites during early life mediate the strength of phenotypic selection on sexual traits.

Jesus Martinez-Padilla, Carlos Camacho, David Canal, et al.

Published: 2022-12-07
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Sexually selected phenotypes are key to understanding population and eco-evolutionary dynamics since the expression of these traits is tightly linked to reproduction and population viability. Parasites are major agents of selection that alter both phenotypic expression and fitness. However, the carry-over effects of parasites in early life in selection on phenotypes expressed later in life are [...]

Boldness and physiological variation in round goby populations along their Baltic Sea invasion front

Andrea Galli, Jane Windfeldt Behrens, Manuel Gesto, et al.

Published: 2022-12-07
Subjects: Life Sciences

The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is a fish native to the Ponto-Caspian region that is highly invasive through freshwater and brackish habitats in northern Europe and North America. Individual behavioural variation appears to be an important factor in their spread, for example a round goby’s personality traits can influence their dispersal tendency, which may also produce variation in the [...]

Quantifying between-individual variation using high-throughput phenotyping of behavioural traits in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

Erin L Macartney, Patrice Pottier, Samantha Burke, et al.

Published: 2022-12-06
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Behavioural phenotyping is often time and labour-intensive, which can come at a cost to sample size and statistical precision. This is particularly a concern given that behaviours are often highly variable within and between individuals, so naturally requires a larger sample size. Drosophila melanogaster is a common model system in many research fields, and behavioural observations are frequently [...]

The Changing Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1: Next Steps for Management & Science in North America

Johanna A Harvey, Jennifer M. Mullinax, Michael C. Runge, et al.

Published: 2022-12-06
Subjects: Life Sciences

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was introduced in North America in late 2021 through trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific pathways via migratory birds. These introductions have resulted in an unprecedented and widespread epizootic event for North America, heavily affecting poultry and free-living wild birds in the spring and summer of 2022. The North American incursions are [...]

Ecological Dynamics and Forecasting: A graduate course on the fundamentals of time series and forecasting in ecology

S.K. Morgan Ernest, Hao Ye, Ethan White

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Ecological Dynamics and Forecasting is a semester-long course to introduce students to the fundamentals of ecological dynamics and forecasting. This course implements a combination of paper-based discussion to introduce students to concepts and ideas and R-based tutorials for hands-on application and training. The course material includes a reading list with prompting questions for discussions, [...]

Alternative reading frames are an underappreciated source of protein sequence novelty

Zachary Ardern

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences

Alternative reading frames of protein coding genes are a major contributor to the evolution of novel protein products. Recent studies demonstrating this include examples across the three domains of cellular life and in viruses. Alternative frame sequences both increase the number of trials available for the evolutionary invention of new genes and have unusual properties which may facilitate gene [...]

Experimental approaches to study evolutionary cell biology using yeasts

Mariana Natalino, Marco Fumasoni

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

The past century has witnessed tremendous advances in understanding how cells function. Nevertheless, how cellular processes have specifically evolved is still poorly understood. Many studies have highlighted surprising molecular diversity in how cells from various species execute the same processes, and advances in comparative genomics are likely to reveal much more molecular diversity than was [...]

Mutation bias and the predictability of evolution

Alejandro Cano, Bryan L Gitschlag, Hana Rozhonova, et al.

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

Predicting evolutionary outcomes is an important research goal in a diversity of contexts. The focus of evolutionary forecasting is usually on adaptive processes, and efforts to improve prediction typically focus on selection. However, adaptive processes often rely on new mutations, which can be strongly influenced by predictable biases in mutation. Here we provide an overview of existing theory [...]

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