Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Biodiversity research in India: a bibliometric overview

Ajishnu Roy, Nandini Garai, Kousik Pramanick

Published: 2024-07-20
Subjects: Life Sciences

As one of the ‘megadiverse’ countries, biodiversity research in India is not only important, specifically for India, but also for the world. To investigate the condition of biodiversity in the Indian academic literature, bibliometric analysis was employed. The Web of Science Core Collection provided data (2000–2023). Out of a preliminary set of 1090 publications, 223 were finalised with a focus [...]

Disentangling variational bias: the roles of development, mutation and selection

Haoran Cai, David Des Marais, Diogo Melo

Published: 2024-07-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

The extraordinary diversity and adaptive fit of organisms to their environment depends fundamentally on the availability of variation. While many evolutionary studies assume that random mutations produce isotropic phenotypic variation, the distribution of variation available to natural selection is more restricted, as the distribution of phenotypic variation is affected by a range of factors in [...]

Repeatability and intra-class correlations from time-to-event data: towards a standardized approach

Kelsey McCune, Coralie Williams, Ned A Dochtermann, et al.

Published: 2024-07-20
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Many biological features are expressed as “time-to-event” traits, such as time to first reproduction or response to some stimulus. The analysis of these traits frequently produces right-censored data in cases where no event has occurred within a certain timeframe. The Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model, a type of survival analysis, accounts for censored data by estimating the hazard of an event [...]

An unrecognized genetic predisposition for sperm competition in aphids

Joachim L. Dagg

Published: 2024-07-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

A hitherto unrecognized genetic predisposition for sperm competition exists in aphids. The females of a clone are diploid for the autosomes and sex chromosomes: AA/XX (where A stands for a haploid set of autosomes). Production of males is parthenogenetic, except for the random loss of one X chromosome. Male offspring is diploid for the autosomes but haploid for the sex chromosomes (AA/X0). Hence, [...]

Accelerating ecosystem monitoring through computer vision with deep metric learning

Yurika Oba, Hideyuki Doi

Published: 2024-07-19
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Feature extraction from environmental observation data based on deep learning models has made significant progress. However, the current methods may not be optimal because of the increasing volume of data, complexity of data characteristics, and labeled data limitations. In this study, we focused on deep metric learning as a new application for environmental observation data to overcome these [...]

A pilot analysis shows that climatic conditions and resource availability along tropical and temperate gradients of the Americas impact the co-occurrence pattern of nectarivorous species

Gideon Deme Gywa, Yoila David Malann, Christopher J. Whelan, et al.

Published: 2024-07-19
Subjects: Life Sciences

Abstract Aim While biodiversity trends and patterns are shaped by both biotic interactions and abiotic factors, biodiversity may vary in space and time when responding to environmental conditions across clines. However, we lack the knowledge of how biotic and abiotic factors determine species co-occurrence to influence community assemblage that can impact biodiversity trends and patterns across [...]

Scanning the skies for migrants: Conservation-focused opportunities for a pan-European automated telemetry network

Lucy Mitchell, Vera Brust, Thiemo Karwinkel, et al.

Published: 2024-07-17
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Other Animal Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology

Accelerated biodiversity loss during the Anthropocene has destabilised functional links within and between ecosystems. Migratory species that cross different ecosystems on their repeated journeys between breeding and non-breeding sites are particularly sensitive to global change because they are exposed to various, often ecosystem-specific threats. As these bring both lethal and non-lethal [...]

Precision Pathway Engineering in Plants: Enhancing Crop Resilience and Productivity for Sustainable Agriculture

Katie Fan

Published: 2024-07-17
Subjects: Life Sciences

Recent advancements in metabolic engineering have opened new avenues for addressing critical challenges in agriculture, nutrition, and sustainability. This study explores innovative strategies for manipulating plant metabolic pathways to enhance crop yield, nutritional value, stress tolerance, and the production of high-value compounds. We present novel findings on improving photosynthetic [...]

Assisted colonisation for ecosystem function: a thought experiment for the British Isles

Charlie J. Gardner, James M. Bullock

Published: 2024-07-17
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Climate change is driving the rapid reorganisation of the world’s biota as species shift their ranges to track suitable conditions, however habitat fragmentation and other barriers hinder this adaptive response for species with limited dispersal ability. The translocation of species into newly suitable areas to which they are unable to disperse naturally has been suggested to conserve species [...]

Experimental evolution of a mammalian holobiont: the genetic and maternal effects in bank voles selected for herbivorous capability

Małgorzata M. Lipowska, Edyta T. Sadowska, Kevin D. Kohl, et al.

Published: 2024-07-17
Subjects: Life Sciences

Mammalian herbivory represents a complex adaptation requiring evolutionary changes across all levels of biological organization, from molecules to morphology to behavior. Explaining the evolution of such complex traits represents a major challenge in biology, simultaneously muddled and enlightened by a growing awareness of the crucial role of symbiotic associations in shaping organismal [...]

Lack of parental mate-switching effects on offspring fitness components in a long-lived socially monogamous species

Frigg Janne Daan Speelman, Terry Burke, Jan Komdeur, et al.

Published: 2024-07-16
Subjects: Life Sciences

In many species, individuals form socially monogamous pair-bonds lasting multiple breeding seasons, or even whole lifetimes. Studies often suggest social monogamy to be adaptive, but this is usually quantified through the survival and annual reproductive success of the partners. However, beyond the number of offspring produced, parental partnerships may also affect their offspring’s phenotype, [...]

gibbonNetR: an R Package for the Use of Convolutional Neural Networks and Transfer Learning on Acoustic Data

Dena Jane Clink, Abdul Hamid Ahmad

Published: 2024-07-14
Subjects: Life Sciences

Automated detection of acoustic signals is crucial for effective monitoring of vocal animals and their habitats across large spatial and temporal scales. Recent advances in deep learning have made high performance automated detection approaches more accessible to more practitioners. However, there are few deep learning approaches that can be implemented natively in R. The 'torch for R' ecosystem [...]

Competition for pollen deposition space on pollinators generates last-male advantage

Pamela Cristina Santana, Jake Mulvaney, Erika Santana, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Life Sciences

Many plants have precise pollen placement strategies so that large amounts of pollen can be found over very small and discrete areas located on pollinators. This may lead to male-male competition if pre-existing pollen (1) is smothered or displaced by pollen from subsequent male flowers or (2) prevents subsequent pollen from attaching to pollinators. We investigated these alternative hypotheses [...]

Marine resources alter tundra food web dynamics by subsidizing a terrestrial predator on the sea ice

Sean M Johnson-Bice, Frank B. Baldwin, Evan Richardson, et al.

Published: 2024-07-11
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Population Biology

Predator use of resource subsidies can strengthen top-down effects on prey when predators respond numerically to subsidies. Although allochthonous subsidies are generally transported along natural gradients, consumers can cross ecosystem boundaries to acquire subsidies, thereby linking disparate ecosystems. In coastal Arctic ecosystems, terrestrial predators can easily cross into the marine [...]

Blindingly Transparent – Anonymity in an Era of Openness: A Reply to Cardini

Shinichi Nakagawa, Malgorzata Lagisz

Published: 2024-07-11
Subjects: Life Sciences

We welcome and appreciate the comment from Cardini [1] on our “ABC of academic writing” [2]. Cardini rightly points out that some of our advice could lead to revealing one’s identity inadvertently, jeopardising the double-blind peer review process. Importantly, there is a wealth of evidence that the effectiveness of double-blind review can prevent biases resulting from traditional single-blind [...]

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