Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Behavior and Ethology

The evolutionary relevance of social learning and transmission of behaviors in non-social arthropods

Caroline M. Nieberding, Matteo Marcantonio, Raluca Voda, et al.

Published: 2021-08-05
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Research on social learning has centered around vertebrates, but evidence is accumulating that small-brained, non-social arthropods also learn from others. Social learning can lead to social inheritance when socially acquired behaviors are transmitted to subsequent generations. Here, we first highlight the complementarities between social and classical genetic inheritance, using oviposition site [...]

The ecology of wealth inequality in animal societies

Eli Strauss, Daizaburo Shizuka

Published: 2021-07-14
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences

Individuals vary in their access to resources, social connections, and phenotypic traits, and a central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how this variation arises and influences fitness. Parallel research on humans has focused on the causes and consequences of variation in material possessions, opportunity, and health. Central to both fields of study is that unequal distribution of [...]

Integrating natural and sexual selection across the biphasic life cycle

Craig Purchase, Jonathan Evans, Julissa Roncal

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Agriculture, Behavior and Ethology, Cell and Developmental Biology, Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Food Biotechnology, Food Science, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

An alternation between diploid and haploid phases is universal among sexual eukaryotes. Across this biphasic cycle, natural selection and sexual selection occur in both phases. Together, these four stages of selection act on the phenotypes of individuals and influence the evolutionary trajectories of populations, but are rarely studied holistically. Here, we provide a conceptual framework that [...]

Species comparison of among- and within-individual variation and correlations

Jeremy Dalos, Raphaël Royauté, Ann Hedrick, et al.

Published: 2021-05-20
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Individuals frequently differ consistently from one another in their average behaviors (i.e. “animal personality”) and in correlated suites of consistent behavioral responses (i.e. “behavioral syndromes”). However, understanding the evolutionary basis of this (co)variation has lagged behind demonstrations of its presence. This lag partially stems from comparative methods rarely being used in the [...]

Male age alone predicts paternity success under sperm competition when effects of age and past mating effort are experimentally separated

Upama Aich, Megan Head, Rebecca Fox, et al.

Published: 2021-05-10
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Older males often perform poorly under post-copulatory sexual selection. It is unclear, however, whether reproductive senescence is due to male age itself or the accumulated costs of the higher lifetime mating effort that is usually associated with male age. To date, very few studies have accounted for male mating history when testing for the effect of male age on sperm traits, and none test how [...]

Implementing network approaches to understand the socioecology of human-wildlife interactions

Krishna Balasubramaniam, Stefano Kaburu, Pascal Marty, et al.

Published: 2021-05-05
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Anthropology, Behavior and Ethology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human population expansion into wildlife habitats has increased interest in the behavioral ecology of human-wildlife interactions. To date, however, the socio-ecological factors that determine whether, when or where wild animals take risks by interacting with humans and anthropogenic factors still remains unclear. We adopt a comparative approach to address this gap, using social network analysis [...]

Sex-specific behavioral syndromes allow the independent evolution of behavioral dimorphism

Raphaël Royauté, Ann Hedrick, Ned A Dochtermann

Published: 2021-04-27
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

When selection differs by sex, the capacity for sexes to reach optimal phenotypes can be constrained by the shared genome of males and females. Because phenotypic traits are often correlated, this difference extends across multiple traits and underlying genetic correlations can further constrain evolutionary responses. Behaviors are frequently correlated as behavioral syndromes, and these [...]

Terminology use in animal personality research: a self-report questionnaire and a systematic review

Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria Moiron, Petri Toivo Niemelä

Published: 2021-04-22
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Whether animal personality studies provide insights of broader evolutionary and ecological relevance to the field of behavioural ecology is frequently questioned. One of the sources of controversy is the vast, but often vague terminology present in the field. From a statistical perspective, animal personality is defined as among-individual variance in behaviour. However, numerous conceptual [...]

How feedback and feed-forward mechanisms link determinants of social dominance

Tobit Dehnen, Josh J. Arbon, Damien R. Farine, et al.

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

In many animal societies, individuals differ consistently in their ability to win agonistic interactions, resulting in dominance hierarchies. These differences arise due to a range of factors that can influence individuals’ abilities to win agonistic interactions, spanning from genetically driven traits through to individuals’ recent interaction history. Yet, despite a century of study since [...]

Drivers and Consequences of Partial Migration in an Alpine Bird Species

Øyvind Lorvik Arnekleiv, Katrine Eldegard, Pål Fossland Moa, et al.

Published: 2021-04-19
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Population Biology

1. Partial migration, where a portion of the population migrates between winter and summer (breeding) areas and the rest remains year-round resident, is a common phenomenon across several taxonomic groups. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain why some individuals migrate while others stay resident, as well as the fitness consequences of the different strategies. Yet, the drivers [...]

Welcome to the Pyrocene: animal survival in the age of megafire

Dale Nimmo, Alexandra Carthey, Chris Jolly, et al.

Published: 2021-04-10
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Planet Earth is entering the age of megafire, pushing ecosystems to their limits and beyond. While fire causes mortality of animals across vast portions of the globe, scientists are only beginning to consider fire as an evolutionary force in animal ecology. Here, we generate a series of hypotheses regarding animal responses to fire by adopting insights from the predator-prey literature. Fire is a [...]

Effects of wave-driven water flow on the fast-start escape response of juvenile coral reef damselfishes

Dominique Roche

Published: 2021-03-25
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences

Fish often evade predators with a fast-start escape response. Studies typically examine this behaviour in still water despite water motion being an inherent feature of aquatic ecosystems. In shallow habitats, waves create complex flows that likely influence escape performance, particularly in small fishes with low absolute swimming speeds relative to environmental flows. I examined how [...]

Early predation risk shapes adult learning and cognitive flexibility

Catarina Vila Pouca, David Joseph Mitchell, Jérémy Lefèvre, et al.

Published: 2021-03-24
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Predation risk during early ontogeny can impact developmental trajectories and permanently alter adult phenotypes. Such phenotypic plasticity often leads to adaptive changes in traits involved in anti-predator responses. While plastic changes in cognition may increase survival, it remains unclear whether early predation experience shapes cognitive investment and drives developmental plasticity in [...]

Effects of male and female personality on sexual cannibalism in the Springbok mantis

Pietro Pollo, Nathan W Burke, Gregory I Holwell

Published: 2021-03-24
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Behaviours that are consistent across contexts (also known as behavioural syndromes) can have evolutionary implications, but their role in scenarios where the sexes conflict, such as sexual cannibalism, is poorly understood. The aggressive spillover hypothesis proposes that cannibalistic attacks during adulthood may depend on female aggressiveness during earlier developmental stages, but evidence [...]

Estimating (non)linear selection on reaction norms: A general framework for labile traits

Jordan Scott Martin, Yimen G Araya-Ajoy, Niels J Dingemanse, et al.

Published: 2021-03-19
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Individual reaction norms describe how labile phenotypes vary as a function of organisms’ expected trait values (intercepts) and plasticity across environments (slopes), as well as their degree of stochastic phenotypic variability or predictability (residuals). These reaction norms can be estimated empirically using multilevel, mixed-effects models and play a key role in ecological research on a [...]

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