Filtering by Subject: Behavior and Ethology

Welcome to the Pyrocene: animal survival in the age of megafire

Dale Nimmo, Alexandra Carthey, Chris Jolly, et al.

Published: 2021-04-10
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Planet Earth is entering the age of megafire, pushing ecosystems to their limits and beyond. While fire causes mortality of animals across vast portions of the globe, scientists are only beginning to consider fire as an evolutionary force in animal ecology. Here, we generate a series of hypotheses regarding animal responses to fire by adopting insights from the predator-prey literature. Fire is a [...]

Effects of wave-driven water flow on the fast-start escape response of juvenile coral reef damselfishes

Dominique Roche

Published: 2021-03-25
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences

Fish often evade predators with a fast-start escape response. Studies typically examine this behaviour in still water despite water motion being an inherent feature of aquatic ecosystems. In shallow habitats, waves create complex flows that likely influence escape performance, particularly in small fishes with low absolute swimming speeds relative to environmental flows. I examined how [...]

Early predation risk shapes adult learning and cognitive flexibility

Catarina Vila Pouca, David Joseph Mitchell, Jérémy Lefèvre, et al.

Published: 2021-03-24
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Predation risk during early ontogeny can impact developmental trajectories and permanently alter adult phenotypes. Such phenotypic plasticity often leads to adaptive changes in traits involved in anti-predator responses. While plastic changes in cognition may increase survival, it remains unclear whether early predation experience shapes cognitive investment and drives developmental plasticity in [...]

Effects of male and female personality on sexual cannibalism in the Springbok mantis

Pietro Pollo, Nathan W Burke, Gregory I Holwell

Published: 2021-03-23
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Behaviours that are consistent across contexts (also known as behavioural syndromes) can have evolutionary implications, but their role in scenarios where the sexes conflict, such as sexual cannibalism, is poorly understood. The aggressive spillover hypothesis proposes that cannibalistic attacks during adulthood may depend on female aggressiveness during earlier developmental stages, but evidence [...]

Estimating Nonlinear Selection on Behavioral Reaction Norms

Jordan Scott Martin

Published: 2021-03-18
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Individuals behavioral strategies are often well described by reaction norms, which are functions predicting repeatable patterns of personality, plasticity, and predictability across an environmental gradient. Reaction norms can be readily estimated using mixed-effects models and play a key role in current theories of adaptive individual variation. Unfortunately, however, it remains challenging [...]

Human social organization during the Late Pleistocene: Beyond the nomadic-egalitarian model

Manvir Singh, Luke Glowacki

Published: 2021-03-13
Subjects: Anthropology, Archaeological Anthropology, Behavior and Ethology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Biological Psychology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Cultural Anthropology

Many researchers assume that until 10-12,000 years ago, humans lived in small, mobile, relatively egalitarian bands composed mostly of kin. This “nomadic-egalitarian model” informs evolutionary explanations of behavior and our understanding of how contemporary societies differ from those of our evolutionary past. Here, we synthesize research challenging this model and propose an alternative, the [...]

Repeatability of endocrine traits and dominance rank in female guinea pigs

Taylor Lynne Rystrom, Romy C. Prawitt, S. Helene Richter, et al.

Published: 2021-03-11
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology

Background Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) are associated with variation in social behavior, and previous studies have linked baseline as well as challenge-induced glucocorticoid concentrations to dominance status. It is known that cortisol response to an acute challenge is repeatable and correlates to social behavior in males of many mammal species. However, it is unclear whether these patterns [...]

Once an Optimist, Always an Optimist? Studying Cognitive Judgment Bias in Mice

Marko Bračić, Lena Bohn, Viktoria Siewert, et al.

Published: 2021-03-10
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Individuals differ in the way they judge ambiguous information: some individuals interpret ambiguous information in a more optimistic, and others in a more pessimistic way. Over the past two decades, such “optimistic” and “pessimistic” cognitive judgment biases (CJBs) have been utilized in animal welfare science as indicators of animals’ emotional states. However, empirical studies on their [...]

CEUTA snowy plover open access data - COMMENTARY

Tamas Szekely, Andras Kosztolanyi, Cristina Carmona-Isunza, et al.

Published: 2021-02-11
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Population Biology

Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2020, Scientific Data 7: 149) recently published a data-paper CeutaOPEN. However, the publication has significant shortcomings: the article does not explain the history nor the context of the project, it did not give credit to the developers of field methodology and data structure, and fails to acknowledge key contributions to the project. We request correcting these [...]

The Ecology of Sleep in Reptiles

Nitya Prakash Mohanty, Carla Wagener, Anthony Herrel, et al.

Published: 2021-02-03
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Sleep is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and yet displays considerable variation in its extent and form in the wild. Ecological factors, such as predation, competition, and microclimate, therefore, are likely to play a strong role in shaping characteristics of sleep. Despite the potential for ecological factors to influence various aspects of sleep, the ecological context of sleep in reptiles [...]

Condition-transfer maternal effects modulate sexual conflict

Roberto García-Roa, Gonçalo Faria, Daniel W.A. Noble, et al.

Published: 2021-01-08
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Strong sexual selection frequently favours males that increase their reproductive success by harming females, with potentially negative consequences for population growth. Understanding what factors modulate conflict between the sexes is hence critical to understand both the evolution of male and female phenotypes and the viability of populations in the wild. Here, we model the evolution of male [...]

Mate-guarding duration is mainly influenced by the risk of sperm competition and not by female quality in a golden orb-weaver spider

Lygia A. Del Matto, Renato Chaves de Macedo Rego, Eduardo S. A. Santos

Published: 2021-01-05
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Males are expected to mate with as many females as possible, but can maximize their reproductive success through strategic mating decisions. For instance, males can increase their own fitness by mating with high quality females that produce more offspring. Additionally, males can adjust mating effort based on the relative distribution of females and male competitors. To test factors that [...]

Collecting eco-evolutionary data in the dark: Impediments to subterranean research and how to overcome them

Stefano Mammola, Enrico Lunghi, Helena Bilandžija, et al.

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

(1) Caves and other subterranean habitats fulfill the requirements of experimental model systems to address general questions in ecology and evolution. Yet, the harsh working conditions of these environments and the uniqueness of the subterranean organisms have challenged most attempts to pursuit standardized research (2) Two main obstacles have synergistically hampered previous attempts. First, [...]

Population divergence in aggregation and sheltering behaviour in surface and cave-adapted Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea: Isopoda)

Gergely Horváth, Sára Sarolta Sztruhala, Gergely Balázs, et al.

Published: 2020-12-19
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Aggregation (gathering together) and sheltering (hiding in cover) are basic behaviours that might reduce the risk of predation. However, both behaviours have costs, like increased competition over resources and high prevalence of contact-spread parasites (aggregation) or lost opportunities for foraging and mating (sheltering). Therefore, adaptive variation in these behaviours is expected between [...]

Lets talk about sex: what influences researchers’ perceptions of sex differences in animal behaviour?

Pietro Pollo, Michael M. Kasumovic

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

The traditional theory of sexual selection posits the idea of sex roles: females should be choosy and caring, while males should be competitive and promiscuous. Despite criticism of these stereotypes from some evolutionary biologists, sex roles still appear as a norm in the literature. This may be because scientists anthropomorphize animal behaviours, which raises the question of whether human [...]


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