Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Environmental Sciences

The intersection between elected representatives and threatened species recovery

Gareth Sean Kindler, Stephen Kearney, Alex Kusmanoff, et al.

Published: 2022-11-05
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Geography, Political Science

A core objective of the conservation movement is to motivate government decision-makers into delivering critical policy changes to abate the global species extinction crisis. Using Australia as a case study, we showcase a way of highlighting the intersection between a nation’s elected representatives and extant threatened species. We analyse the relationship between Australia’s 151 Commonwealth [...]

The March of the Human Footprint

Eric Wayne Sanderson, Kim Fisher, Nathaniel Robinson, et al.

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Arts and Humanities, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Life Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Human influence is driving planetary change, often in undesirable and unsustainable ways. Recent advances enabled us to measure changes in humanity’s footprint on Earth annually from 2000 – 2019 with a nine-fold improvement in spatial resolution over previous efforts. We found that earlier studies seriously under-estimated the magnitude, extent, and rate of change in the human footprint. [...]

Publication bias impacts on effect size, statistical power, and magnitude (Type M) and sign (Type S) errors in ecology and evolutionary biology

Yefeng Yang, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Rose E O'Dea, et al.

Published: 2022-09-12
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

Collaborative assessments of direct replicability of empirical studies in the medical and social sciences have exposed alarmingly low rates of replicability, a phenomenon dubbed the ‘replication crisis’. Poor replicability has spurred cultural changes targeted at improving reliability in these disciplines. Given the absence of equivalent replication projects in ecology and evolutionary biology, [...]

Scientific maps should reach everyone: a straightforward approach to let colour blind people visualise spatial patterns

Duccio Rocchini, Jakub Nowosad, Rossella D'Introno, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Maps represent powerful tools to show the spatial variation of a variable in a straightforward manner. A crucial aspect in map rendering for its interpretation by users is the gamut of colours used for displaying data. One part of this problem is linked to the proportion of the human population that is colour blind and, therefore, highly sensitive to colour palette selection. The aim of this [...]

Research protocol: The effectiveness of feed efficiency and husbandry in mitigating the enteric methane emissions of dairy and beef cattle in temperate farming systems; a rapid synthesis and network meta-analysis

Jodie Vaughan, Gavin stewart

Published: 2022-07-11
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Beef and dairy cattle of temperate farming systems will be studied to investigate the relationships between their methane emissions as well as their efficiencies as milk and beef producers. The investigation will comprehensively utilise all research published on this topic to date via a formalised rapid review and analysing it together through a network meta-analysis. The use of organic versus [...]

Uneven biodiversity sampling across redlined urban areas in the United States

Diego Ellis-Soto, Melissa Chapman, Dexter Locke

Published: 2022-06-09
Subjects: Biodiversity, Demography, Population, and Ecology, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Inequality and Stratification, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sociology, Urban Studies and Planning

Citizen science data has rapidly gained influence in urban ecology and conservation planning, but with limited understanding of how such data reflects social, economic, and political conditions and legacies. Understanding patterns of sampling bias across socioeconomic gradients is critical to accurately map and understand biodiversity patterns, and to generating representative and just [...]

GridDER: Grid Detection and Evaluation in R

Xiao Feng, Tainá Rocha, Hanna T Thammavong, et al.

Published: 2022-05-23
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Observations and collections of organisms form the basis of our understanding of Earth’s biodiversity and are an indispensable resource for global change studies. Geographic information is key, serving as the link between organisms and the environments they reside in. However, the geographic information associated with these records is often inaccurate, thus limiting their efficacy for research. [...]

Pattern-based identification and mapping of landscape types using multi-thematic data

Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski

Published: 2022-03-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Categorical maps of landscape types (LTs) are useful abstractions that simplify spatial and thematic complexity of natural landscapes, thus facilitating land resources management. A local landscape arises from a fusion of patterns of natural themes (such as land cover, landforms, etc.), which makes an unsupervised identification and mapping of LTs difficult. This paper introduces the integrated [...]

Empirical application of a framework for aquatic species conservation in Anthropocene rivers under changing conditions

Jaishri Srinivasan, Joseph Holway, John Sabo

Published: 2022-02-15
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biostatistics, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistics and Probability, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

We present an innovative framework for assessing fluvial aquatic species conservation under conditions of an impending regime shift using the case example of the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program (UCREFRP). We assess the effectiveness of the program actions first, the ecoregional impact of the program second and the adaptive management paradigm in this context third, using [...]

The costs of abating threats to Australias biodiversity

Chuanji Yong, Michelle S Ward, James E.M. Watson, et al.

Published: 2022-02-04
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

1. Budgeting for biodiversity conservation requires realistic estimates of the costs of threat abatement. However, data on the costs of managing threats to biodiversity is often unavailable or unable to be extrapolated across relevant locations and scales due to a lack of transparency and consistency in how it was collated. Conservation expenditure largely occurs without a priori estimates costs [...]

Nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics of the Hunter River estuary

James Nicholas Hitchcock, Jordan Facey, Doug Westhopre, et al.

Published: 2021-12-28
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Observational studies and nutrient amendment experiments were conducted to better understand the nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics of the Hunter River estuary. Eutrophic conditions above ANZECC guidelines for estuaries dominate the Hunter River estuary. The upper Hunter estuary, upstream of its confluence with the Williams River, had the highest concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll a. [...]

Anticipatory responses to drought by plants: What are the environmental cues?

Pedro J. Aphalo, Víctor O. Sadras

Published: 2021-09-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Water Resource Management

This study is an attempt to reconcile the physics-driven variation in reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and possible sensory-driven anticipatory acclimation that contributes to tolerance of dry weather spells and drought by plants growing in open fields. We use an original data set measured at high temporal resolution. These data include the standard meteorological observations plus detailed [...]

Emerging opportunities for wildlife with sustainable autonomous transportation

Inês Silva, Justin M. Calabrese

Published: 2021-09-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

Autonomous vehicles (AV) are expected to play a key role in the future of transportation, introducing a disruptive yet potentially beneficial change for vehicle-wildlife interactions. However, this assumption has not been critically examined. Here, we introduce a new conceptual framework covering the intersection between AV technological innovation and wildlife conservation to reduce [...]

Drivers of the live pet trade: the role of species traits, socioeconomic attributes and regulatory systems

Adam Toomes, Pablo García‐Díaz, Oliver C. Stringham, et al.

Published: 2021-08-27
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The live pet trade is a major driver of both biodiversity loss and the introduction of invasive alien species. Building a comprehensive understanding of the pet trade would improve prediction of conservation and biosecurity threats, with the aim to prevent further negative impacts. We used South Australia’s native wildlife permit reporting system as a data-rich example of a live vertebrate pet [...]

Seasonally variable relationships between surface water temperature and inflow in the upper San Francisco Estuary

Samuel M. Bashevkin, Brian Mahardja

Published: 2021-06-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Water temperature and inflow are key environmental drivers in aquatic systems that are linked through a causal web of factors including climate, weather, water management, and their downstream linkages. However, we do not yet fully understand the relationship between inflow and water temperature, especially in complex managed systems such as estuaries. The San Francisco Estuary is the center of a [...]

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