Filtering by Subject: Biodiversity

Matrix quality determines the strength of habitat loss filtering on bird communities at the landscape scale

Melina de Souza Leite, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Jean Paul Metzger, et al.

Published: 2021-09-20
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Habitat loss represent a major threat to biodiversity, however, the modulation of their effects by the non-habitat matrix surrounding habitat patches is still undervalued. The landscape matrix might change community assembly in different ways. For example, low-quality matrices can accentuate environmental filtering by reducing resource availability and/or deteriorating abiotic conditions but they [...]

The potential contribution of private lands to U.S. 30x30 conservation

Melissa Chapman, Carl Boettiger, Justin S Brashares

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Coincident with international movements to protect 30% of land and sea over the next decade (‘30x30’), the United States has committed to more than doubling its current protected land area by 2030. While publicly owned and managed protected areas have been the cornerstone of area-based conservation over the past century, such lands are costly to establish and have limited capacity to protect [...]

Make natures role visible to achieve the SDGs

Dave Hole, Pamela Collins, Anteneh Tesfaw, et al.

Published: 2021-09-08
Subjects: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Economics, Environmental Studies, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Central to the premise of the Sustainable Development Goals is the concept that the environment underpins the economic and social dimensions of development, yet the language and structure of the SDG framework are largely blind to these environment-development relationships beyond the "nature" Goals (14 and 15). As a result, ecosystem health continues to decline, development milestones lag, and [...]

Harmonizing taxon names in biodiversity data: a review of tools, databases, and best practices

Matthias Grenié, Emilio Berti, Juan D. Carvajal-Quintero, et al.

Published: 2021-09-03
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

1. The process of standardizing taxon names, taxonomic name harmonization, is necessary to properly merge data indexed by taxon names. The large variety of taxonomic databases and related tools are often not well described. It is often unclear which databases are actively maintained or what is the original source of taxonomic information. In addition, software to access these databases is [...]

Standardized NEON organismal data for biodiversity research

Daijiang Li, Sydne Record, Eric Sokol, et al.

Published: 2021-09-02
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Understanding patterns and drivers of species distributions and abundances, and thus biodiversity, is a core goal of ecology. Despite advances in recent decades, research into these patterns and processes is currently limited by a lack of standardized, high-quality, empirical data that spans large spatial scales and long time periods. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) fills this [...]

The arrival and spread of the European firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus in Australia as documented by citizen scientists

Luis Mata, Blythe Vogel, Estibaliz Palma, et al.

Published: 2021-09-01
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Life Sciences

We present evidence of the recent introduction and quick spread of the European firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus in Australia, as documented on the citizen science platform iNaturalist. The first public record of the species was reported in December 2018 in the City of Brimbank (Melbourne, Victoria). Since then, the species distribution has quickly expanded into 15 local government areas surrounding [...]

What state of the world are we in? Targeted monitoring to detect transitions in vegetation restoration projects.

Christopher Jones, Freya Thomas, Damian Michael, et al.

Published: 2021-08-30
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Monitoring vegetation restoration is challenging because ‘best practice’ monitoring is costly, requires long-term funding, and involves monitoring multiple vegetation variables which are often not linked back to learning about progress toward objectives. There is a clear need for the development of targeted monitoring programs that focus on a reduced set of variables that are tied to specific [...]

The potential contribution of kurī (Polynesian dog) to the ecological impacts of the human settlement of Aotearoa New Zealand

Karen Greig, Nicolas J. Rawlence

Published: 2021-08-27
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

The pre-human Aotearoa New Zealand ecosystem was dominated by avian and reptilian species. Prior to first human settlement by East Polynesian colonists, the top predators were two giant raptorial birds. Aside from humans themselves, colonisation also resulted in the introduction of two novel mammalian predators into this naive ecosystem, the kiore (Pacific rat) and kurī (Polynesian dog). While [...]

Nest-boxes alter the reproductive ecology of urban cavity-nesters in a species-dependent way

Joanna Sudyka, Irene Di Lecce, Lucyna Wojas, et al.

Published: 2021-08-26
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Population Biology

To mitigate the shortage of natural breeding sites in cities, nest-boxes are provided for cavity-nesters. However, these are not the breeding sites these animals originally evolved in and optimised their breeding performance to. It thus remains inconclusive if nest-boxes can provide adequate substitutes, ensuring equivalent fitness returns for breeding animals. Additionally, the majority of [...]

Abundance- and biomass-based metrics of functional composition of macroinvertebrates as surrogates of ecosystem attributes in Afrotropical streams

Augustine Sitati, Frank Onderi Masese, Mourine J. Yegon, et al.

Published: 2021-08-16
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Life Sciences

The composition of macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups (FFGs) has been used as surrogates of ecosystem attributes in aquatic ecosystems but studies that utilize such knowledge are still limited in the tropics. This study investigated the suitability of abundance- vs. biomass-based metrics of macroinvertebrate FFGs as surrogates of ecosystems attributes of the Sosiani-Kipkaren River in [...]

Food web reconstruction through phylogenetic transfer of low-rank network representation

Tanya Strydom, Salomé Bouskila, Francis Banville, et al.

Published: 2021-08-13
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Despite their importance in many ecological processes, collecting data and information on ecological interactions, and therefore species interaction networks, is an exceedingly challenging task. For this reason, large parts of the world have a deficit of data of which species interact, and what we can expect the network structure of these interactions to be. As data collection alone is unlikely [...]

Facilitating dynamic and inclusive biodiversity conservation in Britain: an Anthropocene perspective

Chris D Thomas, Jane K Hill, Caroline Ward, et al.

Published: 2021-08-13
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Summary We propose an approach to conservation centred on achieving positive future trajectories of dynamic change, applied to all locations and species, and based on societal inclusiveness. Strategies to facilitate change. We take an Anthropocene perspective, in which human society and biodiversity have been inextricably linked for over 10,000 years, and continuing biodiversity change is [...]

Men and wolves: are anthropogenic causes the main driver of wolf mortality in human-dominated landscapes in Italy?

Carmela Musto, Jacopo Cerri, Marco Galaverni, et al.

Published: 2021-08-06
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Life Sciences

Over the last 40 years the gray wolf (Canis lupus) re-colonized its historical range in Italy increasing human-predator interactions. However, temporal and spatial trends in wolf mortality, including direct and indirect persecution, were never summarized. This study aims to fill this gap by focusing on the situation of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions, believed to host a significant proportion [...]

Dissimilarity of species interaction networks: quantifying the effect of turnover and rewiring

Timothée Poisot

Published: 2021-07-31
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Despite having established its usefulness in the last ten years, the decomposition of ecological networks in components allowing to measure their β-diversity retains some methodological ambiguities. Notably, how to quantify the relative effect of mechanisms tied to interaction rewiring vs. species turnover has been interpreted differently by different authors. In this contribution, I present [...]

Crumbling Island Keystones: Threat Diversity and Intensification on Islands Push Large Island Fruit Bats to the Brink

Tigga Kingston, F B Vincent Florens, Christian E Vincenot

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Large island fruit bats (LIFB), species of Pteropus, Acerodon, and related genera in the pteropodid subfamily Pteropodinae, are keystone species for island conservation in the Palaeotropics, playing critical roles as agents of dispersal and pollination of native island plant communities. This keystone role is crumbling because LIFB are collectively the most threatened group of bats in the world. [...]


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