Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

The fossil record of the Neogene Carnivore Mammals from Spain

Jorge Morales, Juan L. Cantalapiedra, Alberto Valenciano, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Carnivore mammals (Carnivora, Mammalia) constitute a significant component of the Spanish Neogene faunas, not so much due to their fossil abundance, which is generally low, but rather because of their high degree of taxonomic diversity. We assessed their evolutionary dynamics from the fossil record of Iberian carnivores using per-taxon rates of origination, extinctions and turnover combined with [...]

Conceptual Models regarding Internal and External Dynamics and Their Interaction in Biological Phenomena

Y Nishida

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Much research has been done on the evolutionary processes and general properties of life from the fields of systems biology, mathematical biology, and evolutionary biology. Life is a system in which micro and macro are coordinated and subsystems are organized to maintain metabolism and function. Life also has systems that maintain homeostasis within the body. Life adapts to time and space, [...]

Hybridization potential of brown trout, with particular reference to invaded environments

Craig F Purchase, Connor Hanley, Tyler H. Lantiegne, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Aquaculture and Fisheries Life Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Population Biology

Hybridization is a complex process beginning with the mating of two species. However, hybrid offspring frequency does not predict hetero-specific mating frequency, as post-mating, both pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers influence their occurrence. Post-zygotic outbreeding depression usually results in poor embryo-juvenile survival or the production of sterile hybrid offspring. Females have [...]

Parasitism and the tradeoffs of social grouping: The role of parasite transmission mode

Lauren Elizabeth Nadler, Jolle W Jolles, Sandra Ann Binning, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Animals form social groups to gain benefits to numerous fitness-enhancing processes, such as foraging, defense, and energy expenditure. While social grouping can increase parasite exposure, it can also serve as a defensive mechanism against parasites (defined broadly here as organisms with obligate, persistent, and harmful consumer associations with a host). Here, we present a conceptual [...]

A Critique of Thompson and Ramírez-Barahona (2023) or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Fossil Record

Eric Robert Hagen

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Last year, a study published in Biology Letters by Thompson and Ramírez-Barahona (2023) argued that, according to analyses of diversification on two massive molecular phylogenies comprising thousands of species, there is no evidence that angiosperms (i.e., flowering plants) were affected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Here I show that these conclusions are flawed from both [...]

Predicting organismal response to marine heatwaves using mechanistic thermal landscape models

Andrew R Villeneuve, Easton R White

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause thermal stress in marine ectotherms, experienced as a pulse against the press of anthropogenic warming. When thermal stress exceeds organismal capacity to maintain homeostasis, organism survival becomes time-limited and can result in mass mortality events. Current methods of detecting and categorizing MHWs rely on statistical analysis of historic climatology, and [...]

Temporal changes in streamflow can predict parasitism levels in freshwater prawns better than host traits

Alison Wunderlich, Esli Emanoel Domingues Mosna, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Understanding how changes in the hydrological regime drive parasite loads and dynamics remains a challenging issue in ecological parasitology. Temporal changes in streamflow and rainfall are key hydrological factors that could alter interactions between the parasite and host and affect parasitism levels. However, to investigate the effect of streamflow, rainfall, and its mechanisms, it is [...]

Bayesian Estimation of Cooccurrence Affinity with Dyadic Regression

Arthur Rufaro Newbury

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Estimating underlying cooccurrence relationships between pairs of species has long been a challenging task in ecology as the extent to which species actually cooccur is partially dependent on their prevalences. While recent work has taken large steps towards solving this problem, the next question is how to assess the factors that influence cooccurrence. Here I show that a recently proposed [...]

Distribution, Abundance and Status of At-Risk Birds at a Six-Acre Site Within the Upper Boileau Biodiversity Reserve, Québec: A Year-Long Research Study

Jimmy Videle

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Understanding the distribution, abundance and status of at-risk birds in any area where human impact is low is an imperative in understanding the larger ecological situation. Birds have been widely seen as reliable indicators of ecological health and there have been significant population declines in North America, especially among migratory aerial insectivores, and are escalading rapidly. As a [...]

Conjugation Related Costs Have Reduced Impact on *in silico* Plasmid Persistence

Arthur Rufaro Newbury

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Life Sciences

Due to the important role they play in the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis and in microbial evolution in general, a great deal of empirical and theoretical work is currently underway, trying to understand plasmid ecology. One of the key questions is how these often costly genetic elements persist in host populations. Here I show that when modelling plasmid population dynamics, it is not [...]

Evidence to inform spatial management of a western Pacific Ocean tuna purse seine fishery

Eric Gilman, Milani Chaloupka, Nialangis Posanau, et al.

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology

Fisheries can have profound impacts on co-occurring species exposed to incidental capture, particularly those with life history traits that make them vulnerable to elevated mortality levels. Fisheries spatial management holds substantial potential to balance socioeconomic benefits and costs to threatened bycatch species. This study analyzed observer program data for a western Pacific Ocean tuna [...]

Evolutionary outcomes arising from bistability in ecosystem dynamics

Sirine Boucenna, Vasilis Dakos, Gael Raoul

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Life Sciences

While it is known that shallow lakes ecosystems may experience abrupt shifts (ie tipping points) from one state to a contrasting degraded alternative state as a result of gradual environmental changes, the role of evolutionary processes and the impact of trait variation in this context remain largely unexplored. It is crucial to elucidate how eco-evolutionary feedbacks affect abrupt ecological [...]

Food web trophic control modulates tropical Atlantic reef ecosystems response to marine heat wave intensity and duration

Camila Artana, Leonardo Capitani, Gabriel Santos Garcia, et al.

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Marine Heat Waves (MHWs) are episodes of anomalous warming in the ocean that can last from a few days to months. MHWs have different characteristics in terms of intensity, duration, and frequency and generate thermal stress on marine ecosystems. In reef ecosystems, they are one of the main causes of decreased presence and abundance of corals, invertebrates, and fish. The deleterious capacity [...]

Non-linearity and temporal variability are overlooked components of global population dynamics

Maëlys Boënnec, Vasilis Dakos, Vincent Devictor

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Life Sciences

Aim. Population dynamics are usually assessed through linear trend analysis, quantifying their general direction. However, linear trends may hide substantial variations in population dynamics that could reconcile apparent discrepancies when quantifying the extent of the biodiversity crisis. We seek to determine whether the use of non-linear methods and [...]

A photographic guide for determining egg incubation stage in the Superb Fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus)

Elisa Resendez, Paulo Ditzel, Paul Kessler, et al.

Published: 2024-01-18
Subjects: Life Sciences

When monitoring the nesting biology of wild birds, nests are often found after the eggs have been laid and incubation has commenced. Candling—the use of a bright light to illuminate egg contents—is a useful method for estimating embryo development and incubation stage. This information is used to estimate when incubation started and predict when eggs will hatch. As the focus of several long-term [...]

search

You can search by:

  • Title
  • Keywords
  • Author Name
  • Author Affiliation