Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Extra-pair paternity, breeding density and synchrony in natural cavities versus nestboxes in two passerine birds

Irene Di Lecce, Charles Perrier, Marta Szulkin, et al.

Published: 2023-02-17
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Ornithology

Most of what is known about extra-pair paternity in hole-nesting birds derives from studies using artificial nesting sites, such as nestboxes. However, it has rarely been investigated whether inference drawn from breeding events taking place in nestboxes matches what would be observed under natural conditions, i.e. in natural cavities. We here report on a variation in promiscuity in blue tits and [...]

High Survival and Percentages of Giraffe Calves Signal Areas in Need of Protection

Constance Dustin Becker, Petra Elisabeth Campbell, Leslie Ann Kadane, et al.

Published: 2023-02-16
Subjects: Life Sciences

We surveyed endangered Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Oloirien Group Ranch (OGR) and Oloisukut Conservancy (OC) in Kenya to determine their conservation potential. Here, Maasai settlements, livestock, and predator control result in lion densities less than half that of adjacent protected areas. Using surveys and photographic mark-recapture (PMR), we annually calculated [...]

Kinematics and behaviour in fish escape responses: guidelines for conducting, analysing, and reporting experiments

Dominique Roche, Eric D Tytell, Paolo Domenici

Published: 2023-02-16
Subjects: Biology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences

Work carried out since the late 70s has provided key insights into the comparative biomechanics, kinematics, behaviour, and neurobiology of fish escape responses. With environmental change expected to affect the physiology and biomechanics of aquatic ectotherms, there is a growing interest in understanding how environmental stressors impact the swimming performance and behaviour of fishes during [...]

Prestige bias in cultural evolutionary dynamics

Saar Egozi, Yoav Ram

Published: 2023-02-16
Subjects: Evolution, Life Sciences, Social and Cultural Anthropology

If the traits of more successful individuals are more likely to be adopted, the resulting cultural transmission is described as being success-biased. Prestige may be used as a proxy for success. Here, we model prestige bias as a combination of indirect success bias and influence bias, the latter meaning that the choice of a role-model depends on the number of individuals that have already copied [...]

Two-step CRISPR-Cas9 protocol for transposable element deletion in D. melanogaster natural populations

Miriam Merenciano, Laura Aguilera, Josefa Gonzalez

Published: 2023-02-15
Subjects: Life Sciences

This protocol generates a precise deletion of a transposable element (TE) in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster using two steps of CRISPR-Cas9 homology-directed repair. In the first step, the TE is replaced by a fluorescent marker, while in the second CRISPR-Cas9 step the fluorescence marker is removed to avoid any possible effect of the introduced marker sequence. This two-step [...]

USE it: uniformly sampling pseudo-absences within the environmental space for applications in habitat suitability models

Daniele Da Re, Enrico Tordoni, Jonathan Lenoir, et al.

Published: 2023-02-13
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Habitat suitability models infer the geographical distribution of species using occurrence data and environmental variables. While data on species presence are increasingly accessible, the difficulty to confirm real absences in the field often forces researchers to generate them in silico. To this aim, pseudo-absences are commonly randomly sampled across the study area (i.e., the geographical [...]

Environmental insults and compensative responses: when microbiome meets cancer

Sunil Nagpal, Sharmila S. Mande

Published: 2023-02-11
Subjects: Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Organismal Biological Physiology, Other Microbiology, Pathogenic Microbiology

Tumor microenvironment has recently been ascribed a new hallmark – the polymorphic microbiome. Accumulating evidence regarding the tissue specific territories of tumor-microbiome have opened new and interesting avenues. A pertinent question is regarding the functional consequence of the meeting of the host-microbiome with cancer. Given microbial communities have predominantly been explored [...]

Disentangling human nature: Anthropological reflections on evolution, zoonoses and ethnographic investigations

Luis Gregorio Abad Espinoza

Published: 2023-02-11
Subjects: Arts and Humanities, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human nature is a puzzling matter that must be analysed through a holistic lens. In this commentary, I foray into anthropology's biosocial dimensions to underscore that human relations span from microorganisms to global commodities. I argue that the future of social-cultural anthropology depends on the integration of evolutionary theory for its advancement. Ultimately, since the likelihood of [...]

Keep your cool: Overwintering physiology in response to urbanization in the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus

Eric Grant Prileson, Jordan Clark, Sarah E Diamond, et al.

Published: 2023-02-10
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Winter presents a challenge for survival, yet temperate ectotherms have remarkable physiological adaptations to cope with low-temperature conditions. Under recent climate change, rather than strictly relaxing pressure on overwintering survival, warmer winters can instead disrupt these low-temperature trait-environment associations, with negative consequences for populations. While there is [...]

A novel method for measuring acute thermal tolerance in fish embryos

Zara-Louise Cowan, Anna H. Andreassen, Jeremy de Bonville, et al.

Published: 2023-02-07
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Aquatic ectotherms are particularly vulnerable to thermal stress, with certain life stages (embryos) predicted to be more sensitive than others (juveniles and adults). When examining the vulnerability of species and life stages to warming, it is particularly important to use appropriate and comparable methodology so that robust conclusions can be obtained. Critical thermal methodology (CTM) is [...]

What acoustic telemetry can and can’t tell us about fish biology

David M.P. Jacoby, Adam T Piper

Published: 2023-02-07
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries Life Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Zoology

Acoustic telemetry (AT) has become ubiquitous in aquatic monitoring and fish biology, conservation and management. Since the early use of active ultrasonic tracking that required researchers to follow at a distance their species of interest, the field has diversified considerably with exciting advances in both hydrophone and transmitter technology. Once a highly specialised methodology however, [...]

Lags in the response of plant assemblages to global warming depends on temperature-change velocity

Laura Camila Pacheco Riaño, Fride Høistad Schei, Suzette G. A. Flantua, et al.

Published: 2023-02-06
Subjects: Life Sciences

Aim: Current global warming is driving changes in biological assemblages by increasing the number of thermophilic species while reducing the number of cold-adapted species, leading to thermophilization of these assemblages. However, there is increasing evidence that thermophilization might not keep pace with global warming, resulting in thermal lags. Here, we quantify the magnitude of thermal [...]

Evolutionary walks through flower color space driven by gene expression in Petunia and allies (Petunieae)

Lucas C Wheeler, Amy Dunbar-Wallis, Kyle Schutz, et al.

Published: 2023-02-03
Subjects: Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

The structure and function of biochemical and developmental pathways determine the range of accessible phenotypes, which are the substrate for evolutionary change. Accordingly, we expect that observed phenotypic variation across species is strongly influenced by pathway structure, with different phenotypes arising due to changes in activity along pathway branches. Here, we use flower colour as a [...]

The impact of helping on helper life-history and fitness in a cooperatively breeding bird

Ellie Chesterton, Alexandra M Sparks, Terry Burke, et al.

Published: 2023-02-03
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Cooperative breeding occurs when helpers provide alloparental care to the offspring of a breeding pair. One hypothesis of why helping occurs is that helpers gain valuable experience (skills) that may increase their own future reproductive success. However, research typically focuses on the effect of helping on short-term measures of reproductive success. Fewer studies have considered how helping [...]

Bacterial multicellular behavior in antiviral defense

Tom Luthe, Larissa Kever, Kai Thormann, et al.

Published: 2023-02-02
Subjects: Life Sciences

Multicellular behaviour benefits seemingly simple organisms such as bacteria, by improving nutrient uptake, resistance to stresses or by providing advantages in predatory interactions. Several recent studies have shown that this also extends to the defense against bacteriophages, which are omnipresent in almost all habitats. In this review, we summarize strategies conferring protection against [...]


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