Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Satellite observations reveal positive relationship between trait-based diversity and drought response in temperate forests

Isabelle Salomé Helfenstein, Joan T. Sturm, Bernhard Schmid, et al.

Published: 2024-01-30
Subjects: Life Sciences

Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of ecosystem research and management thanks to knowledge gained from long-term grassland and, more recently, forest experiments. However, to what extent the behavior of non-experimental systems corresponds to the relationships discovered in BEF experiments remains controversial. We [...]

The Distraction Function of Extrafloral Nectaries: Keeping Ants Away From Flowers and Preventing Disruption of Pollination

Mario A. Sandoval Molina, Emilio González-Camarena, Jessica Rosas-Sánchez, et al.

Published: 2024-01-30
Subjects: Desert Ecology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

In exchange for extrafloral nectar, ants deter herbivores from the plants, reducing the amount of herbivory they suffered. However, this defensive mutualism can sometimes have negative effects on plants, as ants may also visit flowers, deterring pollinators and reducing plant fitness. The Distraction Hypothesis posits that extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) have the function of attracting ants and [...]

Evolutionary outcomes arising from bistability in ecosystem dynamics

Sirine Boucenna, Vasilis Dakos, Gael Raoul

Published: 2024-01-29
Subjects: Life Sciences

While it is known that shallow lakes ecosystems may experience abrupt shifts (ie tipping points) from one state to a contrasting degraded alternative state as a result of gradual envi- ronmental changes, the role of evolutionary processes and the impact of trait variation in this context remain largely unexplored. It is crucial to elucidate how eco-evolutionary feedbacks affect abrupt ecological [...]

Impacts of Changing Winters on Lake Ecosystems will Increase with Latitude

Ted Ozersky, Amanda Poste, Milla Rautio, et al.

Published: 2024-01-29
Subjects: Life Sciences

Climate warming is especially pronounced in winter and at high latitudes. Warming winters are leading to loss of lake ice and changing snow cover on seasonally freezing lakes. Past neglect of the ice cover period by lake scientists has resulted in critical data and theory gaps about the role of winter conditions in lake ecosystem function and the effects of changing winters on aquatic systems. [...]

A non-invasive approach to measuring body dimensions of wildlife with camera-traps: a felid field trial

Alexandra Jane Paton, Barry W. Brook, Jessie C. Buettel

Published: 2024-01-29
Subjects: Life Sciences

Dimensions of body size are an important measurement in animal ecology, though they can be difficult to obtain due to the effort and cost associated with the invasive nature of these measurements. We avoid these limitations by using camera-trap images to derive dimensions of animal size. To obtain measurements of object dimensions using this method, the size of the object in pixels, the focal [...]

Experimental protocol for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics palaeoecological simulations

Harriet B. Drage, Stephen Pates, Nicholas J. Minter

Published: 2024-01-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are increasingly used to test palaeoecological hypotheses. These analyses output simulated velocity and pressure flow profiles, and drag and lift force values acting on a model. These outputs are presumed to be internally consistent, assuming consistently applied parameters, but it is unclear whether these reflect real-world force measurements. [...]

The fossil record of the Neogene Carnivore Mammals from Spain

Jorge Morales, Juan L. Cantalapiedra, Alberto Valenciano, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences

Carnivore mammals (Carnivora, Mammalia) constitute a significant component of the Spanish Neogene faunas, not so much due to their fossil abundance, which is generally low, but rather because of their high degree of taxonomic diversity. We assessed their evolutionary dynamics from the fossil record of Iberian carnivores using per-taxon rates of origination, extinctions and turnover combined with [...]

Conceptual Models regarding Internal and External Dynamics and Their Interaction in Biological Phenomena

Y Nishida

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Much research has been done on the evolutionary processes and general properties of life from the fields of systems biology, mathematical biology, and evolutionary biology. Life is a system in which micro and macro are coordinated and subsystems are organized to maintain metabolism and function. Life also has systems that maintain homeostasis within the body. Life adapts to time and space, [...]

Hybridization potential of brown trout, with particular reference to invaded environments

Craig F Purchase, Connor Hanley, Tyler H. Lantiegne, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Aquaculture and Fisheries Life Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Population Biology

Hybridization is a complex process beginning with the mating of two species. However, hybrid offspring frequency does not predict hetero-specific mating frequency, as post-mating, both pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers influence their occurrence. Post-zygotic outbreeding depression usually results in poor embryo-juvenile survival or the production of sterile hybrid offspring. Females have [...]

Parasitism and the tradeoffs of social grouping: The role of parasite transmission mode

Lauren Elizabeth Nadler, Jolle W Jolles, Sandra Ann Binning, et al.

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Animals form social groups to gain benefits to numerous fitness-enhancing processes, such as foraging, defense, and energy expenditure. While social grouping can increase parasite exposure, it can also serve as a defensive mechanism against parasites (defined broadly here as organisms with obligate, persistent, and harmful consumer associations with a host). Here, we present a conceptual [...]

A Critique of Thompson and Ramírez-Barahona (2023) or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Fossil Record

Eric Robert Hagen

Published: 2024-01-25
Subjects: Life Sciences

Last year, a study published in Biology Letters by Thompson and Ramírez-Barahona (2023) argued that, according to analyses of diversification on two massive molecular phylogenies comprising thousands of species, there is no evidence that angiosperms (i.e., flowering plants) were affected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Here I show that these conclusions are flawed from both [...]

Predicting organismal response to marine heatwaves using mechanistic thermal landscape models

Andrew R Villeneuve, Easton R White

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause thermal stress in marine ectotherms, experienced as a pulse against the press of anthropogenic warming. When thermal stress exceeds organismal capacity to maintain homeostasis, organism survival becomes time-limited and can result in mass mortality events. Current methods of detecting and categorizing MHWs rely on statistical analysis of historic climatology, and [...]

Temporal changes in streamflow can predict parasitism levels in freshwater prawns better than host traits

Alison Wunderlich, Esli Emanoel Domingues Mosna, Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

1. Understanding how changes in the hydrological regime drive parasite loads and dynamics remains a challenging issue in ecological parasitology. Temporal changes in streamflow and rainfall are key hydrological factors that could alter interactions between the parasite and host and affect parasitism levels. However, to investigate the effect of streamflow, rainfall, and its mechanisms, it is [...]

Bayesian Estimation of Cooccurrence Affinity with Dyadic Regression

Arthur Rufaro Newbury

Published: 2024-01-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Estimating underlying cooccurrence relationships between pairs of species has long been a challenging task in ecology as the extent to which species actually cooccur is partially dependent on their prevalences. While recent work has taken large steps towards solving this problem, the next question is how to assess the factors that influence cooccurrence. Here I show that a recently proposed [...]

Distribution, Abundance and Status of At-Risk Birds at a Six-Acre Site Within the Upper Boileau Biodiversity Reserve, Québec: A Year-Long Research Study

Jimmy Videle

Published: 2024-01-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Understanding the distribution, abundance and status of at-risk birds in any area where human impact is low is an imperative in understanding the larger ecological situation. Birds have been widely seen as reliable indicators of ecological health and there have been significant population declines in North America, especially among migratory aerial insectivores, and are escalading rapidly. As a [...]

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