Filtering by Subject: Life Sciences

Parasites during early life mediate the strength of phenotypic selection on sexual traits.

Jesus Martinez-Padilla, Carlos Camacho, David Canal, et al.

Published: 2022-12-07
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Sexually selected phenotypes are key to understanding population and eco-evolutionary dynamics since the expression of these traits is tightly linked to reproduction and population viability. Parasites are major agents of selection that alter both phenotypic expression and fitness. However, the carry-over effects of parasites in early life in selection on phenotypes expressed later in life are [...]

Boldness and physiological variation in round goby populations along their Baltic Sea invasion front

Andrea Galli, Jane Windfeldt Behrens, Manuel Gesto, et al.

Published: 2022-12-07
Subjects: Life Sciences

The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is a fish native to the Ponto-Caspian region that is highly invasive through freshwater and brackish habitats in northern Europe and North America. Individual behavioural variation appears to be an important factor in their spread, for example a round goby’s personality traits can influence their dispersal tendency, which may also produce variation in the [...]

Quantifying between-individual variation using high-throughput phenotyping of behavioural traits in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)

Erin L Macartney, Patrice Pottier, Samantha Burke, et al.

Published: 2022-12-06
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Behavioural phenotyping is often time and labour-intensive, which can come at a cost to sample size and statistical precision. This is particularly a concern given that behaviours are often highly variable within and between individuals, so naturally requires a larger sample size. Drosophila melanogaster is a common model system in many research fields, and behavioural observations are frequently [...]

The Changing Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1: Next Steps for Management & Science in North America

Johanna A Harvey, Jennifer M. Mullinax, Michael C. Runge, et al.

Published: 2022-12-06
Subjects: Life Sciences

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was introduced in North America in late 2021 through trans-Atlantic pathways via migratory birds. These introductions have resulted in an unprecedented epizootic, a widespread disease event in animals, heavily affecting poultry, wild birds, and recently mammals. The North American incursions occurred during the largest epidemic season (2021 – [...]

Ecological Dynamics and Forecasting: A graduate course on the fundamentals of time series and forecasting in ecology

S.K. Morgan Ernest, Hao Ye, Ethan White

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Ecological Dynamics and Forecasting is a semester-long course to introduce students to the fundamentals of ecological dynamics and forecasting. This course implements a combination of paper-based discussion to introduce students to concepts and ideas and R-based tutorials for hands-on application and training. The course material includes a reading list with prompting questions for discussions, [...]

Alternative reading frames are an underappreciated source of protein sequence novelty

Zachary Ardern

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences

Alternative reading frames of protein coding genes are a major contributor to the evolution of novel protein products. Recent studies demonstrating this include examples across the three domains of cellular life and in viruses. Alternative frame sequences both increase the number of trials available for the evolutionary invention of new genes and have unusual properties which may facilitate gene [...]

Experimental approaches to study evolutionary cell biology using yeasts

Mariana Natalino, Marco Fumasoni

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

The past century has witnessed tremendous advances in understanding how cells function. Nevertheless, how cellular processes have specifically evolved is still poorly understood. Many studies have highlighted surprising molecular diversity in how cells from various species execute the same processes, and advances in comparative genomics are likely to reveal much more molecular diversity than was [...]

Mutation bias and the predictability of evolution

Alejandro Cano, Bryan L Gitschlag, Hana Rozhonova, et al.

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Life Sciences

Predicting evolutionary outcomes is an important research goal in a diversity of contexts. The focus of evolutionary forecasting is usually on adaptive processes, and efforts to improve prediction typically focus on selection. However, adaptive processes often rely on new mutations, which can be strongly influenced by predictable biases in mutation. Here we provide an overview of existing theory [...]

Understanding local plant extinctions before it’s too late: bridging evolutionary genomics with global ecology.

Moises Exposito-Alonso

Published: 2022-12-01
Subjects: Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Understanding evolutionary genomic and population processes within a species range is key to anticipating the extinction of plant species before it is too late. However, most models of biodiversity risk projections under global change do not account for the genetic variation and local adaptation of different populations. Population diversity is critical to understanding extinction because [...]

Describing posterior distributions of variance components: Problems and the use of null distributions to aid interpretation

Joel L Pick, Claudia Kasper, Hassen Allegue, et al.

Published: 2022-11-26
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Assessing the biological relevance of variance components estimated using MCMC-based mixed-effects models is not straightforward. Variance estimates are constrained to be greater than zero and their posterior distributions are often asymmetric. Different measures of central tendency for these distributions can therefore be very different, and credible intervals cannot overlap zero, making it [...]

Temperature change effects on marine fish range shifts: a meta-analysis of ecological and methodological predictors

Carolin Dahms, Shaun S Killen

Published: 2022-11-24
Subjects: Life Sciences

The current effects of global warming on marine ecosystems are predicted to increase, with species responding by changing their spatial distributions. Marine ectotherms such as fish experience elevated distribution shifts, as temperature plays a key role in physiological functions and delineating population ranges through thermal constraints. Distributional response predictions necessary for [...]

Implications of microbial community assembly for ecosystem restoration: patterns, process, and potential

Emily Graham, Joseph E Knelman

Published: 2022-11-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences

While it is now widely accepted that microorganisms provide essential functions in restoration ecology, the nature of relationships between microbial community assembly and ecosystem recovery remain unclear. There has been a longstanding challenge to decipher whether microorganisms facilitate or simply follow ecosystem recovery, and evidence for each is mixed at best. We propose that [...]

Quantifying uncertainties of ecological forecasting under climate change

XIN CHEN, Ye Liang, Xiao Feng

Published: 2022-11-22
Subjects: Life Sciences

Ecological forecasting is critical in understanding of ecological responses to climate change and is increasingly used in climate mitigation plans. The forecasts from correlative models can be challenged by novel environmental conditions and predictor collinearity that are common during model extrapolation. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive knowledge about how these factors [...]

Accounting for cloud cover and circannual variation puts the effect of lunar phase on deer-vehicle collisions into perspective

Jacopo Cerri, Laura Stendardi, Elena Bužan, et al.

Published: 2022-11-22
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Zoology

Although several studies have focused on the influence of moonlight over deer-vehicle collisions, findings have been inconsistent. This may be due to neglecting the effects of cloud cover, a major impediment to moon illumination, and circannual variation in both deer and human activity. We modeled how median cloud cover interacted with the illuminated fraction of the moon in affecting daily roe [...]

On The Origin of Speciation

Kenji Hayashida

Published: 2022-11-21
Subjects: Life Sciences

Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution that natural selection leads to the evolution of organisms in "On the Origin of Species”, but did not show the mechanism by which new species differentiate and fix. Speciation requires a system in which genes are not mixed by interspecific hybridization, and reproductive isolation, especially postmating reproductive isolation, is considered to be [...]


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