Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Animal Sciences

Linking Predator Responses to Alkaloid Variability in Poison Frogs

Justin P Lawrence, Bibiana Rojas, Annelise Blanchette, et al.

Published: 2022-09-21
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Zoology

Many chemically-defended/aposematic species rely on diet for sequestering the toxins with which they defend themselves. This dietary acquisition can lead to variable chemical defenses across space, as the community composition of chemical sources is likely to vary across the range of (an aposematic) species. We characterized the alkaloid content of two populations of the Dyeing Poison Frog [...]

The Risk of Avian Influenza in the Southern Ocean: A practical guide

Meagan Leanne Dewar, Michelle Wille, Amandine Gamble, et al.

Published: 2022-08-22
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biology, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences

Advice from Avian Influenza experts suggests that there is a high risk that Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza will arrive in the Southern Ocean 2022/23-2024/25 austral summers. Since the beginning of 2022, the increasing intensity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of seabirds in the Northern Hemisphere, around the [...]

Draft for Open Consultation. The Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP): A status review and roadmap for global amphibian conservation.

Amphibian Specialist Group IUCN SSC

Published: 2022-07-18
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Life Sciences, Other Animal Sciences

As the most threatened vertebrate class on earth, amphibians are at the forefront of the biodiversity crisis, with the start of global amphibian declines and extinctions dating back several decades now. The Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP), the first taxonomic class-level plan of its kind, was first published in 2007 and then updated as a digital resource in 2015, with the goal of acting [...]

Record of Halmahera Walking (Hemiscyllium halmahera) Shark in South Morotai

Muhammad Ichsan, Harimurti Asih Bimantara, Niomi Pridina, et al.

Published: 2022-06-29
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Zoology

Halmahera walking shark (Hemiscyllium halmahera) was first discovered by Allen in 2013 and studies regarding this species are still limited. This species distribution includes Halmahera Island and surrounding islands in North Maluku, such as Ternate, Tidore, Bacan and Morotai. Records in Morotai, one of Indonesias most well-known marine tourism sites for shark diving, are discussed in this study, [...]

The vocal apparatus of bats: an understudied tool to reconstruct the evolutionary history of echolocation?

Nicolas Louis Michel Brualla, Laura AB Wilson, Michael Doube, et al.

Published: 2022-06-13
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Zoology

Until recently, bat phylogeny separated megabats (laryngeally non-echolocators) and microbats (all laryngeal echolocators) into two distinct clades. This segregation was consistent with the assumption that laryngeal echolocation was acquired by a common ancestor and inherited by all microchiropterans. Thus, laryngeal echolocation was regarded to have evolved once. Recent advances in bat genome [...]

Evolution and impact of socially transferred materials

Sanja Maria Hakala, Haruna Fujioka, Ornela De Gasperin, et al.

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Physiology, Systems Biology

Since the dawn of life, transfers of metabolized material between individuals have led to great innovations of evolution. When metabolized material is transferred from one individual’s body to another (as with sperm, eggs, milk, symbionts), secondary manipulative molecules that induce a physiological response in the receiver are often transferred along with the primary cargo. The bioactive and [...]

A Systematic Map of Research Exploring the Ecological Modifiers and Consequences of Bark Damaging Behaviour in Squirrel Species

Alexandra Ash, Yanjie Zhao, Evelyn P. Covarrubias, et al.

Published: 2022-05-17
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Zoology

Bark-stripping and browsing by mammals in woodlands can cause widespread damage to trees, inhibiting tree growth and leading to whole tree or canopy death. Sciurid species worldwide are known to incorporate inner bark or cambium tissue into their diets, and outer bark can additionally be used as nesting material. The drivers and causes of bark-stripping behaviour have been investigated and [...]

Brain morphology correlates of learning and cognitive flexibility in a fish species (Poecilia reticulata)

Zegni Triki, Maria Granell-Ruiz, Stephanie Fong, et al.

Published: 2022-05-02
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biology, Life Sciences, Zoology

Determining how variation in brain morphology affects cognitive abilities is important to understand inter-individual variation in cognition and, ultimately, cognitive evolution. Yet, despite many decades of research in this area, there is surprisingly little experimental data available from assays that quantify cognitive abilities and brain morphology in the same individuals. Here, we tested [...]

Neotropical Ornithology: Reckoning with historical assumptions, removing systemic barriers, and reimagining the future

Letícia Soares, Kristina Cockle, Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza, et al.

Published: 2022-04-22
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Life Sciences, Ornithology

A major barrier to advancing ornithology is the systemic exclusion of professionals from the Global South. A recent special dossier, Advances in Neotropical Ornithology, and a shortfalls analysis therein, unintentionally followed a long-standing pattern of highlighting individuals, knowledge, and views from the Global North, while largely omitting the perspectives of people based within the [...]

Handling Character Dependency in Phylogenetic Inference: Extensive Performance Testing of Assumptions and Solutions Using Simulated Data

Tiago R. Simões, Oksana V. Vernygora, Bruno A.S. de Medeiros, et al.

Published: 2022-04-07
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Bioinformatics, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Character dependency is a major conceptual and methodological problem in phylogenetic inference of morphological datasets, as it violates the assumption of characters independency that is common to all phylogenetic methods. It is more frequently observed in higher-level phylogenies or in datasets characterizing major evolutionary transitions, as these represent parts of the tree of life where [...]

Extreme heatwave drives topography-dependent patterns of mortality in a bed-forming intertidal barnacle, with implications for associated community structure

Amelia Hesketh, Christopher Harley

Published: 2022-04-01
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Life Sciences, Marine Biology

Heatwave frequency and intensity will increase as climate change progresses. Intertidal sessile invertebrates, which often form thermally benign microhabitats for associated species, are vulnerable to thermal stress because they have minimal ability to behaviourally thermoregulate. Understanding what factors influence the mortality of biogenic species and how heatwaves might impact their ability [...]

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Intervals of the Visayan Warty Pig in Negros Occidental, Philippines

Jacqueline Rose Tuale Alipo-on, Francesca Isabelle Escobar, Jemima Loise Novia, et al.

Published: 2022-03-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Biology, Forest Biology, Forest Sciences, Laboratory and Basic Science Research Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Animal Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Physiology, Zoology

The Visayan warty pig is one of the endemic species of the Philippines that have been listed as "critically endangered." Conservation actions and efforts, such as health assessments, are being carried out to preserve the population. However, there is limited information about the normal hematological and biochemical profile of the species. The study presents reference intervals essential for [...]

Long-term trends in seasonality and abundance of three key zooplankters in the upper San Francisco Estuary

Samuel M. Bashevkin, Christina E. Burdi, Rosemary Hartman, et al.

Published: 2022-03-02
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries Life Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Population Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Zoology

Zooplankton provide critical food for threatened and endangered fish species in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). Reduced food supply has been implicated in the Pelagic Organism Decline of the early 2000s and further changes in zooplankton abundance, seasonality, and distribution may continue to threaten declining fishes. While we have a wealth of monitoring data, we know little about the [...]

Achieving global biodiversity goals by 2050 requires urgent and integrated actions

Paul Leadley, Andrew Gonzalez, Cornelia Krug, et al.

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Human impacts on the Earth’s biosphere are driving the global biodiversity crisis. Governments are preparing to agree on a set of actions intended to halt the loss of biodiversity and put it on a path to recovery by 2050. We provide evidence that the proposed actions can bend the curve for biodiversity, but only if these actions are implemented urgently and in an integrated manner.

101 years of biofluorescent animal studies: trends in literature, novel hypotheses, and best practices moving forward

Russell Gray, Catharina Karlsson

Published: 2022-02-06
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Bioinformatics, Life Sciences

Biofluorescent animals have become a recent trend in natural history publishing. While the functions and origins of biofluorescence in fauna remains somewhat controversial, trends in biofluorescence throughout published literature may elucidate these concepts. Here we review 101 years of biofluorescent studies encompassing 108 published papers and 977 unique species records. Our results provide [...]

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