Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Animal Sciences

Matrix quality determines the strength of habitat loss filtering on bird communities at the landscape scale

Melina de Souza Leite, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Jean Paul Metzger, et al.

Published: 2021-09-19
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Habitat loss represent a major threat to biodiversity, however, the modulation of their effects by the non-habitat matrix surrounding habitat patches is still undervalued. The landscape matrix might change community assembly in different ways. For example, low-quality matrices can accentuate environmental filtering by reducing resource availability and/or deteriorating abiotic conditions but they [...]

Nest-boxes alter the reproductive ecology of urban cavity-nesters in a species-dependent way

Joanna Sudyka, Irene Di Lecce, Lucyna Wojas, et al.

Published: 2021-08-25
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Population Biology

To mitigate the shortage of natural breeding sites in cities, nest-boxes are provided for cavity-nesters. However, these are not the breeding sites these animals originally evolved in and optimised their breeding performance to. It thus remains inconclusive if nest-boxes can provide adequate substitutes, ensuring equivalent fitness returns for breeding animals. Additionally, the majority of [...]

WHY DO INSECTS EVOLVE IMMUNE PRIMING? A SEARCH FOR CROSSROADS

Arun Prakash, imroze khan

Published: 2021-08-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Education, Entomology, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences

Until recently, it was assumed that insects lack immune memory since they do not have vertebrate-like specialized memory cells. Therefore, their most well studied evolutionary response against pathogens was increased basal immunity. However, growing evidence suggests that many insects also exhibit a form of immune memory (immune priming), where prior exposure to a low dose of infection confers [...]

The potential for physiological performance curves to shape environmental effects on social behaviour

Shaun S Killen, Daphne Cortese, Lucy Cotgrove, et al.

Published: 2021-08-06
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biology, Life Sciences, Zoology

As individual animals are exposed to varying environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity will occur in a vast array of physiological traits. For example, shifts in factors such as temperature and oxygen availability can affect the energy demand, cardiovascular system, and neuromuscular function of animals that in turn impact individual behaviour. Here, we argue that non-linear changes in the [...]

Social capital: an independent dimension of healthy ageing

Cédric Sueur, Martin Quque, Alexandre Naud, et al.

Published: 2021-05-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physiology, Public Health, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Zoology

Resources that are embedded in social relationships, such as shared knowledge, access to food, services, social support or cooperation, are all examples of social capital. Social capital is recognized as an important age-related mediator of health in humans and of fitness-related traits in animals. A rich social capital in humans can slow senescence and reverse age-related deficits. Animals have [...]

Implementing network approaches to understand the socioecology of human-wildlife interactions

Krishna Balasubramaniam, Stefano Kaburu, Pascal Marty, et al.

Published: 2021-05-05
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Anthropology, Behavior and Ethology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human population expansion into wildlife habitats has increased interest in the behavioral ecology of human-wildlife interactions. To date, however, the socio-ecological factors that determine whether, when or where wild animals take risks by interacting with humans and anthropogenic factors still remains unclear. We adopt a comparative approach to address this gap, using social network analysis [...]

Deploying Ecological Countermeasures as a Biosecurity Imperative

Jamie Reaser, Gary M. Tabor, Rohit A. Chitale, et al.

Published: 2021-03-08
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Immunopathology, International Public Health, Life Sciences, Maternal and Child Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Immunology and Infectious Disease, Population Biology, Public Health, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology, Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology, Zoology

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought biosecurity to the forefront of national security policy. Land use change is a fundamental driver of zoonotic disease outbreaks, yet substantial study is yet required to unravel the mechanisms by which land use-induced spillover operates. Ecological degradation may be the 21st Century’s most overlooked security threat. Within the biosecurity context, we introduce [...]

Ecological Countermeasures for Pandemic Prevention: When Ecological Restoration is a Human Health Imperative

Jamie Reaser, Arne Witt, Gary M. Tabor, et al.

Published: 2020-12-06
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Bacteriology, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Immunopathology, Integrative Biology, International Public Health, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Parasitology, Pathogenic Microbiology, Population Biology, Public Health, Systems Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology, Veterinary Pathology and Pathobiology, Zoology

Ecological restoration should be regarded as a public health service. Unfortunately, the lack of quantitative linkages between environmental and human health has limited recognition of these principle. Advent of COVID-19 pandemic provides the impetus for the further discussion. We propose ecological countermeasures as highly targeted, landscape-based interventions to arrest the drivers of land [...]

Validating morphological condition indices and their relationship with reproductive success in great-tailed grackles

Jennifer Berens, Corina J Logan, Melissa Folsom, et al.

Published: 2020-11-19
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Animal Studies, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Morphological and physiological variation among individuals has the potential to influence multiple life history characteristics such as dispersal, migration, reproductive success, and survival. Individuals that are in better "condition" can disperse or migrate further or more successfully, have greater reproductive success, and survive longer, particularly in years where environmental conditions [...]

Wolf depredation hotspots in France: Clustering analyses accounting for livestock availability

Oksana Grente, Thibault Saubusse, Olivier Gimenez, et al.

Published: 2020-11-06
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Zoology

Depredation hotspots are the main source of conflict between humans and large carnivores. When locating depredation hotspots, previous studies have not adjusted for livestock availability, making it impossible for managers to discriminate hotspots resulting from underlying livestock clustering from those due to other factors such as environmental factors. We studied hotspots of wolf depredation [...]

Reducing land use-induced spillover risk by fostering landscape immunity: policy priorities for conservation practitioners

Jamie Reaser, Brookline E. Hund, Manuel Ruiz-Aravena, et al.

Published: 2020-10-15
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Animal Studies, Biodiversity, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Studies, Forest Sciences, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Immunopathology, International and Area Studies, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Parasitology, Population Biology, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Science and Technology Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Biology

Anthropogenic land use change is the major driver of zoonotic pathogen spillover from wildlife to humans. In response to the global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (the agent of COVID-19 disease), there have been renewed calls for landscape conservation as a disease preventive measure. While protected areas are a vital conservation tool for wildlands, more than 50% of habitable land is now [...]

Combining social information use and comfort-seeking for nest site selection in a cavity-nesting raptor

Jennifer Morinay, Federico De Pascalis, Davide M. Dominoni, et al.

Published: 2020-09-30
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Ornithology

When selecting a breeding site, individuals can use social information to reduce the uncertainty regarding habitat quality. In particular, individuals from several bird species tend to reuse nests previously occupied by competitors. Re-occupying nests previously used by conspecifics or heterospecifics could result from exploiting social information by copying competitors’ choice (the ‘social [...]

A methodological roadmap to quantify animal-vectored spatial ecosystem subsidies

Diego Ellis-Soto, Kristy M. Ferraro, Matteo Rizzuto, et al.

Published: 2020-07-28
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Zoology

Ecosystems are open systems connected through spatial flows of energy, matter, and nutrients. Predicting and managing ecosystem interdependence requires a rigorous quantitative understanding of the drivers and vectors that connect ecosystems across spatio-temporal scales. Animals act as such vectors when they transport nutrients across landscapes in the form of excreta, egesta, and their own [...]

Potential effects of habitat fragmentation on wild animal welfare

Luke Hecht, Matthew Allcock

Published: 2020-06-18
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

The fragmentation of habitat has occurred throughout the history of life on Earth, but has been accelerated and magnified in scale over the past few centuries as a result of human industrial development. Habitat fragmentation affects the welfare of some wild animals directly, through the often violent processes that bring about fragmentation and by reducing the distance between them and the [...]

Desert Locust in India: The 2020 invasion and associated risks

Sayantan Ghosh, Arindam Roy

Published: 2020-06-01
Subjects: Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Animal Sciences, Entomology, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Urban Studies and Planning, Zoology

Wind direction, often used in forecasting locust migration, indicates a non-zero probability of desert locust invasion in eastern Indian states. Apart from present controlling measures, we are additionally suggesting to be cautious about the eggs of locust as the rainfall associated with Super Cyclone Amphan has created a favorable breeding ground for the gregarious locust. Also reverse migration [...]

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