Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Psychology

Psychological and Cultural Factors Influencing Antibiotic Prescription

Francisco Dionisio, Fernando Baquero, Marina Fuertes

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Bacteriology, Child Psychology, Health Psychology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Psychiatry and Psychology, Psychological Phenomena and Processes, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sociology, Sociology of Religion

Humans have been giving a selective advantage to antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide by inundating the environment with antimicrobials for about one century. As a result, the efficacy of antibiotics has been impaired. Antibiotic resistance is a public health problem, responsible for increases in mortality and extended stays at hospitals. Hospitals and other clinical settings have implemented [...]

Survival of the luckiest

Sergio Da Silva

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Opposite dynamics are behind natural selection and sexual selection. While the fittest survives in natural selection, the survivor will most likely be the luckiest when both dynamics are combined.

Day and night camera trap video is effective for identifying wild Asian elephants

Sasha Montero-De La Torre, Sarah L Jacobson, Marnoch Yindee, et al.

Published: 2021-07-24
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Comparative Psychology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Camera traps provide a virtual window into the natural world of wild animals, as they provide a noninvasive way to capture anatomical and behavioral information. Regular monitoring of wild populations through the collection of behavioral and demographic data is critical for the conservation of endangered species like the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Identifying individual elephants can [...]

Understanding determinants of the intention to purchase rhino horn in Vietnam through the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour

Hoai Nam Dang Vu, Martin Reinhardt Nielsen

Published: 2021-04-12
Subjects: Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology

Demand for rhino horn in Asian markets is driving a rhino poaching crisis in Africa. This study examined rhino horn demand using the theory of planned behaviour and the theory of interpersonal behaviour. We conducted a survey of 427 individuals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 281 rhino horn users and 146 non-users. We empirically tested all constructs of the two theories predicting intention to [...]

Human social organization during the Late Pleistocene: Beyond the nomadic-egalitarian model

Manvir Singh, Luke Glowacki

Published: 2021-03-13
Subjects: Anthropology, Archaeological Anthropology, Behavior and Ethology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Biological Psychology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Cultural Anthropology

Many researchers assume that until 10-12,000 years ago, humans lived in small, mobile, relatively egalitarian bands composed mostly of kin. This “nomadic-egalitarian model” informs evolutionary explanations of behavior and our understanding of how contemporary societies differ from those of our evolutionary past. Here, we synthesize research challenging this model and propose an alternative, the [...]

Pathways linking biodiversity to human health: A conceptual framework

Melissa Marselle, Terry Hartig, Daniel Cox, et al.

Published: 2020-09-23
Subjects: Biodiversity, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Geography, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Other Psychology, Psychology, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Biodiversity is a cornerstone of human health and well-being. However, while evidence of the contributions of nature to human health is rapidly building, research into how biodiversity relates to human health remains limited in important respects. In particular, a better mechanistic understanding of the range of pathways through which biodiversity can influence human health is needed. These [...]

Time is money. Waiting costs explain why selection favors steeper time discounting in deprived environments.

Hugo Mell, Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André

Published: 2019-12-05
Subjects: Other Psychology, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Individuals exposed to deprivation tend to show a characteristic behavioural syndrome suggestive of a short time horizon. This pattern has traditionally been attributed to the intrinsically higher unpredictability of deprived environments, which renders waiting for long term rewards more risky (i.e. collection risks are high). In the current paper, based on a simple dynamic life history model, we [...]

The Evolutionary Psychology of Scientific Publishing: Cost-Benefit Optimization of Players in the Game

Milind Watve

Published: 2019-07-11
Subjects: Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Peer reviewed scientific publishing is critical for communicating important findings, interpretations and theories in any branch of science. While the value of peer review is rarely doubted, much concern is being raised about the possible biases in the process. I argue here that most of the biases originate in the evolved innate tendency of every player to optimize one’s own cost benefits. [...]

Heritability and maternal effects on social attention during an attention bias task in a non-human primate, Macaca mulatta

Emily June Bethell, Caralyn Kemp, Harriet Thatcher, et al.

Published: 2019-05-02
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Social attention is fundamental to a wide range of behaviours in non-human primates. However, we know very little about the heritability of social attention in non-human primates, and the heritability of attention to social threat has not been assessed. Here, we provide data to begin to fill this gap in knowledge. We tested 67 female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, on an attention bias [...]

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