Filtering by Subject: Molecular Genetics

When the microbiome shapes the host: immune evolution implications for infectious disease

Mark Austin Hanson

Published: 2023-10-24
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Evolution, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Pathogenic Microbiology

The microbiome includes both “mutualist” and “pathogen” microbes, regulated by the same innate immune architecture. A major question has therefore been: how do hosts prevent pathogenic infections while maintaining beneficial microbes? One idea suggests hosts can selectively activate innate immunity upon pathogenic infection, but not mutualist colonisation. Another idea posits that hosts can [...]

STRyper: an open source macOS application for microsatellite genotyping

Jean Peccoud

Published: 2023-07-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Molecular Genetics, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

In the context of population genetics, microsatellite markers analyzed by capillary sequencing remain useful tools for quick genotyping and low-cost studies. This contrasts with the lack of a free application to analyze chromatograms for microsatellite genotyping that is designed for population geneticists. To fill this gap, I have developed STRyper, a macOS application whose source code is [...]

How do monomorphic bacteria evolve? The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the awkward population genetics of extreme clonality

Christoph Stritt, Sebastien Gagneux

Published: 2022-12-15
Subjects: Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics, Pathogenic Microbiology, Population Biology

Exchange of genetic material through sexual reproduction or horizontal gene transfer is ubiquitous in nature. Among the few outliers that rarely recombine and mainly evolve by de novo mutation are a group of deadly bacterial pathogens, including the causative agents of leprosy, plague, typhoid, and tuberculosis. The interplay of evolutionary processes is poorly understood in these organisms. [...]

Incompatibility and interchangeability in molecular evolution

Daniel B Sloan, Jessica M Warren, Alissa M Williams, et al.

Published: 2022-11-02
Subjects: Evolution, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics

There is remarkable variation in the rate at which genetic incompatibilities in molecular interactions accumulate. In some cases, minor changes – even single nucleotide substitutions – create major epistatic incompatibilities when hybridization forces new variants to function in a novel genetic background from an isolated population. In other cases, genes or even entire functional pathways can be [...]

Genomic architecture of resistance and tolerance to Swiss needle cast and Rhabdocline needle cast diseases in Douglas-fir

Pooja Singh, J. Bradley St.Clair, Brandon M. Lind, et al.

Published: 2022-08-10
Subjects: Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics

Understanding the genetic architecture of tolerance and resistance to pathogens is important to monitor and maintain resilient tree populations. Here we investigate the genetic basis of tolerance and resistance and to needle cast disease in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by two fungal pathogens: Swiss needle cast (SNC) caused by Nothophaeocryptopus gaeumannii, and Rhabdocline needle [...]

The evolutionary impacts of synonymous mutations

Deepa Agashe

Published: 2021-12-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics

During the 50 years since the genetic code was cracked, our understanding of the evolutionary consequences of synonymous mutations has undergone a dramatic shift. Synonymous codon changes were initially considered selectively neutral, and as such, exemplars of evolution via genetic drift. However, the pervasive and non-negligible fitness impacts of synonymous mutations are now clear across [...]

Impact of Infectious Disease on Humans and Our Origins

Petar Gabrić

Published: 2021-06-19
Subjects: Anthropology, Archaeological Anthropology, Arts and Humanities, Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Biological Phenomena, Cell Phenomena, and Immunity, Cell and Developmental Biology, Cell Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetic Phenomena, Genetics, Genetics and Genomics, History of Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, Life Sciences, Medical Biochemistry, Medical Cell Biology, Medical Genetics, Medical Immunology, Medical Microbiology, Medical Molecular Biology, Medical Pathology, Medical Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Molecular Genetics, Pathogenic Microbiology, Pharmacology, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Virology

On May 16, 2020, the Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny organized the symposium “Impact of Infectious Disease on Humans and Our Origins”. The symposium aimed to gather experts on infectious diseases in one place and discuss the interrelationship between different pathogens and humans in an evolutionary context. The talks discussed topics including SARS-CoV-2, dengue and [...]

Rapid isolation and characterization of microsatellites in the critically endangered Mountain Bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci)

Fraser John Combe, Evelyn Taylor cox, Graeme fox, et al.

Published: 2019-01-15
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics

High-throughput sequencing tools promise to revolutionize many aspects of genetics research, e.g. by allowing the identification of functional adaptive genetic variation. However, the expense and expertise required to apply these tools to basic conservation questions is a challenge for applications outside academia, resulting in a so-called “conservation genomics gap” (Shafer et al. 2015). The [...]

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