Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Life Sciences

Effect of sampling strategies on the response curves estimated by plant species distribution models

Manuele Bazzichetto, Jonathan Lenoir, Daniele Da Re, et al.

Published: 2022-08-27
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Species distribution models (SDMs) rely on species presence/absence or abundance data and environmental variables to estimate species response curves. Therefore, the quality (and quantity, i.e., sample size) of the data to describe the species distribution determines the quality of the estimate of the species-environment relationship. However, SDMs are seldom fitted on high-quality data collected [...]

The promise of an evolutionary perspective of alcohol consumption

Hans Hofmann, Benjamin Clites, Jonathan Pierce

Published: 2022-08-24
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Neuroscience and Neurobiology, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Life Sciences, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

The urgent need for medical treatments of alcohol use disorders has motivated the search for novel molecular targets of alcohol response. Most studies exploit the strengths of lab animals without considering how these and other species may have adapted to respond to alcohol in an ecological context. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on the molecular and genetic underpinnings of alcohol [...]

The coevolutionary mosaic of bat betacoronavirus emergence risk

Norma Forero, Renata L. Muylaert, Stephanie N. Seifert, et al.

Published: 2022-07-01
Subjects: Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biology, Biotechnology, Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Life Sciences

Pathogen evolution is one of the least predictable components of disease emergence, particularly in nature. Here, building on principles established by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution, we develop a quantitative, spatially-explicit framework for mapping the evolutionary risk of viral emergence. Driven by interest in diseases like SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, we examine the global [...]

Sea turtle conservation as a blueprint for freshwater turtles in the eastern U.S.

Denise Nicole Blough

Published: 2022-06-24
Subjects: Education, Law, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

With turtles and tortoises being one of the most threatened taxa on the planet, dire conservation action is needed. As a global hotspot for turtles — with over 85 species and subspecies — the U.S. can play a major role in curbing turtle extinction. It has already done so for its six species of sea turtles, which experienced dramatic declines over the 19th and 20th centuries due to human [...]

Rates of ecological knowledge learning in Pemba, Tanzania: Implications for childhood evolution.

Ilaria Pretelli, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Richard McElreath

Published: 2022-04-23
Subjects: Arts and Humanities, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Humans live in diverse, complex niches where survival and reproduction are conditional on the acquisition of knowledge. Humans also have long childhoods, spending more than a decade before they become net producers. Whether the time needed to learn has been a selective force in the evolution of long human childhood is unclear, because there is little comparative data on the [...]

A human-neutral large carnivore? No patterns in the body mass of gray wolves (Canis lupus) across a gradient of anthropization

Jacopo Cerri, Carmela Musto, Federico Mattia Stefanini, et al.

Published: 2022-04-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

English - The gray wolf (Canis lupus) expanded its distribution in Europe over the last few decades. To better understand the extent to which wolves could re-occupy their historical range, nowadays including anthropized landscapes, it is important to test if and how anthropization can affect fitness-related traits in this species. We modeled how anthropization was associated with the body [...]

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Intervals of the Visayan Warty Pig in Negros Occidental, Philippines

Jacqueline Rose Tuale Alipo-on, Francesca Isabelle Escobar, Jemima Loise Novia, et al.

Published: 2022-03-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Biology, Forest Biology, Forest Sciences, Laboratory and Basic Science Research Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Animal Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Physiology, Zoology

The Visayan warty pig is one of the endemic species of the Philippines that have been listed as "critically endangered." Conservation actions and efforts, such as health assessments, are being carried out to preserve the population. However, there is limited information about the normal hematological and biochemical profile of the species. The study presents reference intervals essential for [...]

Soil biota impacts on plant access to different water pools in soil

Coline Deveautour, Jeff Powell, Margaret M Barbour, et al.

Published: 2022-02-22
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Aims: Soil water availability depends on the capacity of soil pores to hold it via physical forces creating gradient of availability from tightly bound water to highly mobile water. Abiotic factors directly affect the size of these pools and plant access to them. Biotic factors influence plant-soil-water relations and possibly affect soil properties and plant access to different water pools. [...]

Foraging complexity and the evolution of childhood

Ilaria Pretelli, Erik Ringen, Sheina Lew-Levy

Published: 2022-02-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Our species’ long childhood is hypothesized to have evolved as a period for learning complex foraging skills. Researchers studying the development of foraging proficiency have focused on assessing this hypothesis, yet studies present inconsistent conclusions regarding the connection between foraging skill development and niche complexity. In this paper, we leverage published records of child [...]

For the few, not the many: local economic conditions constrain the large-scale management of invasive mosquitoes

Jacopo Cerri, Chiara Sciandra, Tania Contardo, et al.

Published: 2022-01-06
Subjects: Economics, Entomology, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Economics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Biology

Invasive mosquitoes are an emerging ecological and sanitary issue. Many factors have been suggested as drivers or barriers to their control, still no study quantified their influence over mosquito management by local authorities, nor their interplay with local economic conditions. We assessed how multiple environmental, sanitary, and socio-economic factors affected the engagement of [...]

Direct Economic Inputs from Internationally Funded Science Projects to the Abaco Islands, The Bahamas

Craig A. Layman, Olivia Patterson Maura, Sean T. Giery, et al.

Published: 2021-12-06
Subjects: Communication, Environmental Studies, International and Intercultural Communication, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

International expenditures for scientific research are important for small island developing nations, especially for those local communities that directly support research activities. We used the Abaco Islands, The Bahamas, as a case study to quantify the direct monetary inputs to a local economy via internationally-funded scientific research. We found that over two years the external monetary [...]

Examining the Associations Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the Potential Distribution of Four Urban Ecosystem Services in Rochester, NY

Joshua Greene, Kaitlin Stack Whitney, Karl Korfmacher

Published: 2021-08-17
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Urban Studies and Planning

As populations and the total area of impervious surfaces continue to grow in developed areas, planners and policy makers must consider how local ecological resources can be utilized to meet the needs and develop climate resilient and sustainable cities. Urban green spaces (UGS) have been identified as critical resources in improving the climate resiliency of cities and the quality of life for [...]

Men and wolves: are anthropogenic causes the main driver of wolf mortality in human-dominated landscapes in Italy?

Carmela Musto, Jacopo Cerri, Marco Galaverni, et al.

Published: 2021-08-05
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Life Sciences

Over the last 40 years the gray wolf (Canis lupus) re-colonized its historical range in Italy increasing human-predator interactions. However, temporal and spatial trends in wolf mortality, including direct and indirect persecution, were never summarized. This study aims to fill this gap by focusing on the situation of Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions, believed to host a significant proportion [...]

Roadkill in a time of pandemic: the analysis of wildlife-vehicle collisions reveals the differential impact of COVID-19 lockdown over mammal assemblages

Boštjan Pokorny, Jacopo Cerri, Elena Bužan

Published: 2021-07-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Population Biology

Collisions with vehicles are a major anthropogenic cause of mortality for wildlife, with conservation and evolutionary implications. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries worldwide enforced lockdowns which importantly reduced traffic, and therefore had unprecedented consequences for global wildlife populations. We modeled how the two lockdown periods in spring and autumn 2020 influenced [...]

Potential bioavailability of pyrogenic organic matter resembles natural dissolved organic matter pools

Emily B. Graham, Hyun-Seob Song, Samantha Grieger, et al.

Published: 2021-04-27
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences

Pyrogenic materials generated by wildfires are transported across terrestrial landscapes into inland waters, creating many consequences for aquatic ecosystems. At least ~10% of dissolved organic matter (DOM) pools may be comprised of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) that is generally considered to be more refractory than DOM derived from other sources. However, there has been no systematic [...]

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