Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Agriculture

Maintenance and expansion of genetic and trait variation following domestication in a clonal crop

Oliver White, Manosh Biswas, Wendawek M. Abebe, et al.

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Agriculture, Bioinformatics, Biosecurity, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Clonal propagation enables favourable crop genotypes to be rapidly selected and multiplied. However, the absence of sexual propagation can lead to low genetic diversity and accumulation of deleterious mutations, which may eventually render crops less resilient to pathogens or environmental change. To better understand this trade-off, we characterise the domestication and contemporary genetic [...]

The best light spectrum for plant cultivation: a source of colourful arguments

Pedro J. Aphalo, Titta K Kotilainen

Published: 2022-05-31
Subjects: Agriculture, Food Science, Life Sciences

In this review we discuss the different factors affecting the use efficiency of light considering quantum properties of light, pigment light absorption, whole-leaf light absorption, the action spectrum of photosynthesis and allocation of biomass to leaf area, and how of these processes are regulated by the color of light.

The Global Forest Health Crisis: A Public Good Social Dilemma in Need of International Collective Action

Geoffrey Williams, Matthew D. Ginzel, Zhao Ma, et al.

Published: 2022-03-11
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Behavioral Economics, Biodiversity, Biology, Biosecurity, Botany, Economics, Entomology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Studies, Forest Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, International Relations, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Forestry and Forest Sciences, Other Plant Sciences, Pathogenic Microbiology, Plant Biology, Plant Pathology, Plant Sciences, Political Science, Science and Technology Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Society is confronted by interconnected threats to ecological sustainability. Among these is the devastation of forests by destructive non-native pathogens and insects introduced through global trade, leading to the loss of critical ecosystem services and a global forest health crisis. We argue that the forest health crisis is a public good social dilemma and propose a response framework that [...]

Achieving global biodiversity goals by 2050 requires urgent and integrated actions

Paul Leadley, Andrew Gonzalez, Cornelia Krug, et al.

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Human impacts on the Earth’s biosphere are driving the global biodiversity crisis. Governments are preparing to agree on a set of actions intended to halt the loss of biodiversity and put it on a path to recovery by 2050. We provide evidence that the proposed actions can bend the curve for biodiversity, but only if these actions are implemented urgently and in an integrated manner.

Flower strips increase the control of rosy apple aphids after parasitoid releases in an apple orchard

Kévin Tougeron, Louise Ferrais, Pauline Gardin, et al.

Published: 2022-01-14
Subjects: Agricultural Economics, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Horticulture, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Mass releases of two parasitoid species, Aphidius matricariae and Ephedrus cerasicola, may provide an alternative measure to pesticides to control the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea in organic apple orchards. As a proof of concept study, we tested if the presence of flower strips between apple tree rows could improve the action of three early parasitoid releases—and of other naturally [...]

Regenerative food systems and the conservation of change

Philip A. Loring

Published: 2021-11-06
Subjects: Agriculture, Life Sciences

In recent years, interest has increased in regenerative practices as a strategy for transforming food systems and solving major environmental problems such as biodiversity loss and climate change. However, debates persist regarding these practices and how they ought to be defined. This paper presents a framework for exploring the regenerative potential of food systems, focusing on how food [...]

A practical conservation tool to combine diverse types of evidence for transparent evidence-based decision-making

Alec Philip Christie, Harriet Downey, Winifred F Frick, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Life Sciences

Making the reasoning and evidence behind conservation decisions clear and transparent is a key challenge for the conservation community. Similarly, combining evidence from diverse sources (e.g., scientific vs non- scientific information) into decision-making is also difficult. Our group of conservation researchers and practitioners has co-produced an intuitive tool and template [...]

Anticipatory responses to drought by plants: What are the environmental cues?

Pedro J. Aphalo, Víctor O. Sadras

Published: 2021-09-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Water Resource Management

This study is an attempt to reconcile the physics-driven variation in reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and possible sensory-driven anticipatory acclimation that contributes to tolerance of dry weather spells and drought by plants growing in open fields. We use an original data set measured at high temporal resolution. These data include the standard meteorological observations plus detailed [...]

Agricultural rewilding: a prospect for livestock systems

Aymeric Mondiere, Michael S Corson, Lois Morel, et al.

Published: 2021-09-23
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

CONTEXT: Agricultural intensification is a major cause of biodiversity loss. Biodiversity conservation and restoration generally involve human intervention. In comparison, rewilding, a radically different approach to address the erosion of biodiversity, aims to increase the ability of ecological processes to act with little or no human intervention, and thus to enhance biodiversity and the supply [...]

Make natures role visible to achieve the SDGs

Dave Hole, Pamela Collins, Anteneh Tesfaw, et al.

Published: 2021-09-08
Subjects: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Economics, Environmental Studies, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Central to the premise of the Sustainable Development Goals is the concept that the environment underpins the economic and social dimensions of development, yet the language and structure of the SDG framework are largely blind to these environment-development relationships beyond the "nature" Goals (14 and 15). As a result, ecosystem health continues to decline, development milestones lag, and [...]

Explaining preemptive acclimation by linking information to plant phenotype

Pedro J. Aphalo, Víctor O. Sadras

Published: 2021-07-07
Subjects: Agriculture, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Integrative Biology, Life Sciences

We review mechanisms for preemptive acclimation in plants and propose a conceptual model linking developmental and evolutionary ecology with the acquisition of information through sensing of cues and signals. The idea is that plants acquire much of the information in the environment not from individual cues and signals but instead from their joint multivariate properties such as correlations. If [...]

Aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar’s vanilla production landscape – exploring rehabilitation through agroforestry in the light of land-use history

Marie Rolande Soazafy, Kristina Osen, Annemarie Wurz, et al.

Published: 2021-06-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

Forests and tree-dominated land uses store large amounts of carbon stocks in plant biomass. However, anthropogenic changes in land use and land cover decrease tree cover and associated carbon stocks. Agroforestry has the potential to maintain or restore carbon in plant biomass but the amount will be influenced by various factors that may include land-use history and management practices. However, [...]

Integrating natural and sexual selection across the biphasic life cycle

Craig Purchase, Jonathan Evans, Julissa Roncal

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Agriculture, Behavior and Ethology, Cell and Developmental Biology, Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Food Biotechnology, Food Science, Life Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

An alternation between diploid and haploid phases is universal among sexual eukaryotes. Across this biphasic cycle, natural selection and sexual selection occur in both phases. Together, these four stages of selection act on the phenotypes of individuals and influence the evolutionary trajectories of populations, but are rarely studied holistically. Here, we provide a conceptual framework that [...]

Utilizing Principles of Biodiversity Science to Guide Soil Microbial Communities for Sustainable Agriculture

Seraina Lisa Cappelli, Luiz A. Domeignoz-Horta, Viviana Loaiza, et al.

Published: 2021-05-10
Subjects: Agriculture, Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

While the positive relationship between plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is relatively well-established, far less in known about the extent to which this relationship is mediated via below-ground microbial responses to plant diversity. Limited evidence suggests that the diversity of soil microbial communities is sensitive to plant community structure, and that diverse soil [...]

Comment on ‘Carbon intensity of corn ethanol in the United States: state of the science’

Seth A. Spawn-Lee, Tyler J. Lark, Holly Gibbs, et al.

Published: 2021-05-07
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Energy Policy, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Policy, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geography, Life Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Sustainability

Scully et al [1] in their recent contribution review and revise past life cycle assessments (LCAs) of corn-grain ethanol’s carbon (C) intensity to suggest that a current ‘central best estimate’ is considerably less than all prior estimates. Their conclusion emerges from selection and recombination of sector-specific greenhouse gas emission predictions from disparate studies in a way that [...]

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