Filtering by Subject: Physiology

Repeatability of endocrine traits and dominance rank in female guinea pigs

Taylor Rystrom, Romy C. Prawitt, S. Helene Richter, et al.

Published: 2021-03-11
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology

Background Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) are associated with variation in social behavior, and previous studies have linked baseline as well as challenge-induced glucocorticoid concentrations to dominance status. It is known that cortisol response to an acute challenge is repeatable and correlates to social behavior in males of many mammal species. However, it is unclear whether these patterns [...]

Maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, Salmonidae): a synthesis of ecological, genetic, and molecular processes

Kenyon Mobley, Tutku Aykanat, Yann Czorlich, et al.

Published: 2020-11-10
Subjects: Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences, Physiology, Population Biology

Over the past decades, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, Salmonidae) has emerged as a model system for sexual maturation research, owing to the high diversity of life history strategies, knowledge of trait genetic architecture, and their high economic value. The aim of this synthesis is to summarize the current state of knowledge concerning maturation in Atlantic salmon, outline knowledge gaps, and [...]

Rapid-warming tolerance correlates with tolerance to slow warming but not growth at non-optimal temperatures in zebrafish

Eirik Ryvoll Åsheim, Anna H. Andreassen, Rachael Morgan, et al.

Published: 2020-05-08
Subjects: Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Life Sciences, Physiology

Global warming is predicted to increase both acute and prolonged thermal challenges for aquatic ectotherms. Severe short and medium-term thermal stress over hours to days may cause mortality, while longer sub-lethal thermal challenges may cause performance declines. The interrelationship between the responses to short, medium and longer thermal challenges is unresolved. We asked if the same [...]

Mapping the past, present and future research landscape of paternal effects

Joanna Rutkowska, Malgorzata Lagisz, Russell Bonduriansky, et al.

Published: 2020-05-07
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiology

Although in all sexually reproducing organisms, an individual has a mother and a father, non-genetic inheritance has been predominantly studied in mothers. Paternal effects have been far less frequently studied, until recently. In the last five years, research on environmentally induced paternal effects has grown rapidly in the number of publications and diversity of topics. Motivations for [...]

Physiological condition of amphibians exposed to historical industrial pollution in a Brazilian biodiversity hotspot

Erika M. Santana, Luis Cesar Schiesari, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes, et al.

Published: 2020-03-06
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology

Industrial pollution is a significant global threat to biodiversity, but its consequences on rainforest ecosystems remains poorly understood. Amphibians are especially susceptible to pollutants released on natural environments due to their aquatic-terrestrial life cycle. Here, we explored the effects of severe historical air, water and soil industrial pollution of Cubatão Industrial Complex (São [...]

The Evolutionary Ecology of Age at Natural Menopause: Implications for Public Health

Abigail Fraser, Elise Whitley, Cathy Johnman, et al.

Published: 2020-02-11
Subjects: Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physiology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evolutionary perspectives on menopause have focused on explaining why early reproductive cessation in females has emerged and why it is rare throughout the animal kingdom, but less attention has been given to exploring patterns of diversity in age at natural menopause. In this paper, we aim to generate new hypotheses for understanding human patterns of diversity in this trait, defined as age at [...]

Aerobic scope protection reduces ectotherm growth under warming

Fredrik Jutfelt, Tommy Norin, Eirik Ryvoll Åsheim, et al.

Published: 2020-01-23
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Life Sciences, Physiology, Zoology

Temperature has a dramatic effect on the physiology of ectothermic animals, impacting most of their biology. When temperatures increase above optimal for an animal, their growth gradually decreases. The main mechanism behind this growth rate reduction is unknown. Here, we suggest the ‘aerobic scope protection’ hypothesis as a mechanistic explanation for the reduction in growth. After a meal, [...]

Quantifying the autonomic response to stressors – one way to expand the definition of "stress" in animals

Matt Gaidica, Ben Dantzer

Published: 2019-11-07
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Endocrinology, Life Sciences, Physiology, Systems Biology

Quantifying the impact of changes or stimuli in the external and internal environment that are challenging (“stressors”) to whole organisms is difficult. To date, physiological ecologists and ecological physiologists have mostly used measures of glucocorticoids (GCs) to assess the impact of stressors on animals. This is of course too simplistic as Hans Seyle himself characterized the response of [...]

Endocrinology of thermoregulation in birds in a changing climate

Suvi Ruuskanen, Bin-Yan Hsu, Andreas Nord

Published: 2019-09-08
Subjects: Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Endocrinology, Life Sciences, Physiology

The ability to maintain a (relatively) stable body temperature in a wide range of thermal environments is a unique feature of endotherms such as birds. Endothermy is acquired and regulated via various endocrine and molecular pathways, and ultimately allows wide aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial distribution in variable environments. However, due to our changing climate, birds are faced with [...]

The covariance between metabolic rate and behaviour varies across behaviours and thermal types: meta-analytic insights

Kimberley Mathot, Niels J Dingemanse, Shinichi Nakagawa

Published: 2019-01-13
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology

Energy metabolism has received much attention as a potential driver of repeatable among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personality). Several factors have been hypothesized to mediate this relationship. We performed a meta-analysis of >70 studies comprised of >8000 individuals reporting relationships between measures of maintenance metabolic rates (i.e., basal metabolic rate, [...]


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