An integrative indicator linking area-based actions to national and global outcomes for forest biodiversity

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Simon Ferrier, Chris Ware, Jenet M Austin, Hedley S. Grantham, Thomas D Harwood, James Watson


Indicators supporting implementation of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) are likely to be used not only to monitor progress toward achieving agreed goals and targets, but also to help prioritise specific actions to address shortfalls in this achievement as efficiently as possible. To perform this dual role, adopted indicators must be derived from data of sufficient rigour and spatial resolution to inform decision-making at national and subnational scales. They also need to account for relevant interdependencies between, and within, individual goals and targets. Here we focus on a particularly prominent set of such dependencies – the impact that area-based actions under draft GBF Targets 1, 2 and 3 will have on outcomes for ecosystem area and integrity (including connectivity) under Goal A, and for the flow-on effect that these changes will, in combination, have on the persistence of species diversity. We show how these various linkages can now be addressed across all forests globally, by coupling state-of-the-art mapping of ecosystem integrity with the integrative analytical capability of an advanced habitat-based biodiversity indicator. Results generated for the world’s forest-supporting countries demonstrate that rigorous consideration of the above interdependencies can profoundly alter understanding of the present state of forest biodiversity, and of the spatial distribution of priorities for area-based action, relative



Biodiversity, Life Sciences


biodiversity, forest, Global, Indicator


Published: 2022-03-13 13:29


CC-By Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

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Data and Code Availability Statement:
References cited in the manuscript provide links to all input datasets used to derive the forest extent and integrity layers, and the vascular plant beta-diversity models, employed in this study. The Forest Landscape Integrity Index can be accessed at