Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Other Social and Behavioral Sciences

Recognize diverse approaches to area-based conservation of nature

Siyu Qin, Yifan He, Rachel E. Golden Kroner, et al.

Published: 2021-08-24
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

To conserve nature globally, policies and practices must recognize the contribution of diverse environmental governance systems to nature stewardship.

Social capital: an independent dimension of healthy ageing

Cédric Sueur, Martin Quque, Alexandre Naud, et al.

Published: 2021-05-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physiology, Public Health, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Zoology

Resources that are embedded in social relationships, such as shared knowledge, access to food, services, social support or cooperation, are all examples of social capital. Social capital is recognized as an important age-related mediator of health in humans and of fitness-related traits in animals. A rich social capital in humans can slow senescence and reverse age-related deficits. Animals have [...]

When cheap talk is not that cheap – interviewing the super-rich about illegal wildlife consumption

Hoai Nam Dang Vu

Published: 2021-02-08
Subjects: Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Obtaining insights on the illicit consumption of endangered wildlife products is challenging, especially when the study objects are the super-rich. This research note draws upon my experience interviewing nearly 1,000 rhino horn consumers in Vietnam. Trust is crucial in such interactions. No interviews could have been conducted without good rapport between interviewers and respondents. [...]

A fine balance: specialized questioning techniques and their use in conservation

Jacopo Cerri, Elizabeth Davis, Diogo Veríssimo, et al.

Published: 2020-10-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Conservationists measuring noncompliance with rules about the exploitation of natural resources often need to ask sensitive questions. However, respondents can introduce bias through distorting their answers to direct questions, due to social norms and/or the risk of legal sanctions. Specialized Questioning Techniques (SQTs) are often a more suitable approach to counteracting respondent bias, as [...]

Indigenous Conservation Practices Are Not a Monolith: Western cultural biases and a lack of engagement with Indigenous experts undermine studies of land stewardship

Kelsey Leonard, Jared Dahl Aldern, Amy Christianson, et al.

Published: 2020-07-24
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Commentary On: Oswald, W. W., Foster, D. R., Shuman, B. N., Chilton, E. S., Doucette, D. L., Duranleau, D. L. Conservation implications of limited Native American impacts in pre-contact New England. Nature Sustainability https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0466-0

Pandemic induced changes in economic activity around African protected areas captured through night-time light data

Anupam Anand, Do-Hyung Kim

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Pandemic induced changes in economic activity around African protected areas captured through night-time light data

Tongue spots of dunnock nestlings vary in number and position over time but exert no clear influence on parental allocation

Carlos Esteban Lara, Benedikt Holtmann, Eduardo S. A. Santos, et al.

Published: 2020-05-16
Subjects: Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The nestlings of many bird species have ornaments in their mouths (e.g., tongue spots), yet the within-species variation of these ornaments remains poorly explored. Here, we described a subtle and intriguing pattern of variation in the tongue spots of dunnock (Prunella modularis) nestlings and further evaluated their potential influence on parental feeding allocation. We observed that tongue [...]

Is yearly rainfall amount a good predictor for agriculture viability in drylands? Modelling traditional cultivation practices of drought-resistant crops: an ethnographic approach for the study of long-term resilience and sustainability

Abel Ruiz-Giralt, Stefano Biagetti, Marco Madella, et al.

Published: 2020-05-11
Subjects: Agriculture, Life Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

FAO guidelines on water requirements for plant growth in the absence of irrigation, stipulate that cultivation is not viable in areas with less than 450mm of annual rainfall. Indeed, in all maps of agricultural land use, most hyper-arid, arid, and semi-arid drylands are considered unproductive. Yet, modern societies in arid and semi-arid drylands still practice rainfed cultivation under regimes [...]

COVID-19 has led to a global increase in web searches for bats: a risk for conservation ?

Jacopo Cerri, Emiliano Mori, Leonardo Ancillotto, et al.

Published: 2020-04-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused COVID-19 pandemic, is genomically similar to a SARS-like beta-coronavirus found in Chinese rhinolophids. This evolutionary relationship impressed global media, which emphasized bats as key actors in the spillover during the pandemic outbreak. In this study we highlight qualitative and quantitative changes about bats in the media coverage, and Internet search [...]

The Evolutionary Ecology of Age at Natural Menopause: Implications for Public Health

Abigail Fraser, Elise Whitley, Cathy Johnman, et al.

Published: 2020-02-11
Subjects: Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Physiology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evolutionary perspectives on menopause have focused on explaining why early reproductive cessation in females has emerged and why it is rare throughout the animal kingdom, but less attention has been given to exploring patterns of diversity in age at natural menopause. In this paper, we aim to generate new hypotheses for understanding human patterns of diversity in this trait, defined as age at [...]

The trade-off between information and pathogen transmission in animal societies

Valéria Romano, Cédric Sueur, Andrew J.J. MacIntosh

Published: 2020-02-04
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Social structure can regulate information and pathogen transmission via social contact or proximity, which ultimately affects individual fitness. In theory, the same network properties that favor social information transmission also favor the spread of socially-transmitted pathogens, creating a trade-off between them. The mechanisms underlying the development and stability of individual [...]

Time is money. Waiting costs explain why selection favors steeper time discounting in deprived environments.

Hugo Mell, Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André

Published: 2019-12-05
Subjects: Other Psychology, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Individuals exposed to deprivation tend to show a characteristic behavioural syndrome suggestive of a short time horizon. This pattern has traditionally been attributed to the intrinsically higher unpredictability of deprived environments, which renders waiting for long term rewards more risky (i.e. collection risks are high). In the current paper, based on a simple dynamic life history model, we [...]

Returning the Earth to Mankind and Mankind to Earth: an Ecosystemic Approach to Advocacy, Public Policies, Research and Teaching Programmes

André Pilon

Published: 2019-01-20
Subjects: Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

In view of the overwhelming pressures on the global environment and the need to disrupt the systems that drive them, an ecosystemic theoretical and practical framework is posited for the evaluation and planning of communication, advocacy, public policies, research and teaching programmes; Priority is given to a set of values, norms and policies in view of human well-being, quality of life and [...]

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