Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Forest Sciences

Assessing the impact of deer on young trees in a Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation based on field signs

Hiromi Yamagawa, Fumiaki Kitahara, Tatsuya Otani, et al.

Published: 2022-06-14
Subjects: Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

Predicting the level of damage caused by deer browsing in young plantations is important for selecting appropriate damage control measures. In this study, we examined a method for assessing the level of deer damage in young Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) plantations by observing field signs of deer. First, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain information about the damage caused by deer [...]

A Systematic Map of Research Exploring the Ecological Modifiers and Consequences of Bark Damaging Behaviour in Squirrel Species

Alexandra Ash, Yanjie Zhao, Evelyn P. Covarrubias, et al.

Published: 2022-05-17
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Behavior and Ethology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Zoology

Bark-stripping and browsing by mammals in woodlands can cause widespread damage to trees, inhibiting tree growth and leading to whole tree or canopy death. Sciurid species worldwide are known to incorporate inner bark or cambium tissue into their diets, and outer bark can additionally be used as nesting material. The drivers and causes of bark-stripping behaviour have been investigated and [...]

A REVIEW OF INDIA SCALE ANALYSIS OF FOREST FIRE AND TOXIC EMISSION

Alija Priyadarshini, Amit Kumar Mohapatra

Published: 2022-04-26
Subjects: Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

Forest is like a backbone to live on earth. Humans are dependent on it for food, shelter, and habitat. Exponentially increasing human population is making pressure on forests and their ecosystem. Although we are greatly dependent on the forest for our day-to-day life still there is the least effort evident from the human side for its conservation. Forest fire is a natural phenomenon that occurs [...]

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Intervals of the Visayan Warty Pig in Negros Occidental, Philippines

Jacqueline Rose Tuale Alipo-on, Francesca Isabelle Escobar, Jemima Loise Novia, et al.

Published: 2022-03-24
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Biology, Forest Biology, Forest Sciences, Laboratory and Basic Science Research Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Other Animal Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Physiology, Zoology

The Visayan warty pig is one of the endemic species of the Philippines that have been listed as "critically endangered." Conservation actions and efforts, such as health assessments, are being carried out to preserve the population. However, there is limited information about the normal hematological and biochemical profile of the species. The study presents reference intervals essential for [...]

The Global Forest Health Crisis: A Public Good Social Dilemma in Need of International Collective Action

Geoffrey Williams, Matthew D. Ginzel, Zhao Ma, et al.

Published: 2022-03-10
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Behavioral Economics, Biodiversity, Biology, Biosecurity, Botany, Economics, Entomology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Studies, Forest Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, International Relations, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Forestry and Forest Sciences, Other Plant Sciences, Pathogenic Microbiology, Plant Biology, Plant Pathology, Plant Sciences, Political Science, Science and Technology Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Society is confronted by interconnected threats to ecological sustainability. Among these is the devastation of forests by destructive non-native pathogens and insects introduced through global trade, leading to the loss of critical ecosystem services and a global forest health crisis. We argue that the forest health crisis is a public good social dilemma and propose a response framework that [...]

Achieving global biodiversity goals by 2050 requires urgent and integrated actions

Paul Leadley, Andrew Gonzalez, Cornelia Krug, et al.

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Human impacts on the Earth’s biosphere are driving the global biodiversity crisis. Governments are preparing to agree on a set of actions intended to halt the loss of biodiversity and put it on a path to recovery by 2050. We provide evidence that the proposed actions can bend the curve for biodiversity, but only if these actions are implemented urgently and in an integrated manner.

A set of principles and practical suggestions for equitable fieldwork in biology

Valeria Ramírez-Castañeda, Erin P. Westeen, Jeffrey Frederick, et al.

Published: 2022-02-04
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Field biology is an area of research that involves working directly with living organisms in situ through a practice known as “fieldwork.” Conducting fieldwork often requires complex logistical planning within multiregional or multinational teams, interacting with local communities at field sites, and collaborative research led by one or a few of the core team members. However, existing power [...]

Evaluating critiques of evidence of historically heterogeneous structure and mixed-severity fires across dry-forest landscapes of the western USA

William L. Baker, Chad T. Hanson, Mark A. Williams, et al.

Published: 2021-12-30
Subjects: Forest Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

The structure and role of fire in historical dry forests, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry mixed-conifer forests, of the western USA, have been debated for 25 years, leaving two theories. The first, that these forests were relatively uniform, low in tree density and dominated by low- to moderate-severity fires was recently reviewed, including a critique of opposing evidence. The second, [...]

Tree measurements in the urban environment: insights from traditional and digital field instruments to smartphone applications

Rocco Pace, Emanuela Masini, Diego Giuliarelli, et al.

Published: 2021-11-30
Subjects: Botany, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Urban forests can provide essential environmental and social functions if properly planned and managed. Tree inventory and measurements are a critical part of assessing and monitoring the size, growth, and health condition of urban trees. In this context, the parameters usually collected are DBH and total height, but additional data about crown dimensions (width, length, and crown projection) are [...]

Amazon fire regimes under climate change scenarios

Leonardo Saravia, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Samir Suweis

Published: 2021-11-16
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Systems Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Fire is one of the most important disturbances of the earth-system, shaping the biodiversity of ecosystems and particularly forests. Anthropogenic drivers such as climatic change and other human activities could produce potentially abrupt changes in fire regimes, triggering more profound transformations like the transition from forests to savannah or grasslands ecosystems. Large biodiversity loss [...]

Optimizing aerial imagery collection and processing parameters for drone-based individual tree mapping in structurally complex conifer forests

Derek Jon Nies Young, Michael J Koontz, Jonah Weeks

Published: 2021-09-11
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Recent advances in remotely piloted aerial systems (“drones”) and imagery processing enable individual tree mapping in forests across broad areas with low-cost equipment and minimal ground-based data collection. One such method involves collecting many partially overlapping aerial photos, processing them using “structure from motion” (SfM) photogrammetry to create a digital 3D representation, and [...]

Make natures role visible to achieve the SDGs

Dave Hole, Pamela Collins, Anteneh Tesfaw, et al.

Published: 2021-09-07
Subjects: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Economics, Environmental Studies, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Central to the premise of the Sustainable Development Goals is the concept that the environment underpins the economic and social dimensions of development, yet the language and structure of the SDG framework are largely blind to these environment-development relationships beyond the "nature" Goals (14 and 15). As a result, ecosystem health continues to decline, development milestones lag, and [...]

Aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar’s vanilla production landscape – exploring rehabilitation through agroforestry in the light of land-use history

Marie Rolande Soazafy, Kristina Osen, Annemarie Wurz, et al.

Published: 2021-06-28
Subjects: Agriculture, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

Forests and tree-dominated land uses store large amounts of carbon stocks in plant biomass. However, anthropogenic changes in land use and land cover decrease tree cover and associated carbon stocks. Agroforestry has the potential to maintain or restore carbon in plant biomass but the amount will be influenced by various factors that may include land-use history and management practices. However, [...]

A 25-years population dynamics of sika deer in Kyushu Island, Japan: Estimation using vector autoregressive spatiotemporal model and evaluation of a large-scale management

Kei Suzuki, Yasumitsu Kuwano, Yuki Kanamori, et al.

Published: 2021-02-04
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Population Biology

Regional management of large herbivore populations is known to be effective in reducing local economic damages and conserving local endemic plants. However, herbivores often move across management areas, and the effect of population management on a large spatial scale is poorly understood, even though it is necessary to use a large-scale approach across multiple management units to implement [...]

Hardwood content impacts the parasitoid community associated with Eastern spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Christopher J. Greyson-Gaito, Sarah J. Dolson, Glen Forbes, et al.

Published: 2021-01-12
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

A major pest of eastern North American forests is spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which outbreaks every 30–40 years and causes large scale tree mortality. Researchers have established that hardwood content reduces the defoliation and mortality of balsam fir and spruces during spruce budworm outbreaks. One mechanism posited to explain these patterns is [...]

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