Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Genetics and Genomics

Alternative reading frames are an underappreciated source of protein sequence novelty

Zachary Ardern

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences

Alternative reading frames of protein coding genes are a major contributor to the evolution of novel protein products. Recent studies demonstrating this include examples across the three domains of cellular life and in viruses. Alternative frame sequences both increase the number of trials available for the evolutionary invention of new genes and have unusual properties which may facilitate gene [...]

Understanding local plant extinctions before it’s too late: bridging evolutionary genomics with global ecology.

Moises Exposito-Alonso

Published: 2022-12-01
Subjects: Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Understanding evolutionary genomic and population processes within a species range is key to anticipating the extinction of plant species before it is too late. However, most models of biodiversity risk projections under global change do not account for the genetic variation and local adaptation of different populations. Population diversity is critical to understanding extinction because [...]

Beyond genes-for-behaviour: the potential for genomics to resolve questions in avian brood parasitism

Katja Helena Rönkä, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Jonna Kulmuni, et al.

Published: 2022-10-27
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

Brood parasite-host interactions are among the most easily observable and amenable natural laboratories of antagonistic coevolution, and as such have intrigued evolutionary biologists for decades. It is therefore surprising they have not been at the forefront of genomic studies on evolutionary adaptation. Here we review state-of-the-art molecular methods in studying avian brood parasitism, a [...]

Maintenance and expansion of genetic and trait variation following domestication in a clonal crop

Oliver White, Manosh Biswas, Wendawek M. Abebe, et al.

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Agriculture, Bioinformatics, Biosecurity, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Clonal propagation enables favourable crop genotypes to be rapidly selected and multiplied. However, the absence of sexual propagation can lead to low genetic diversity and accumulation of deleterious mutations, which may eventually render crops less resilient to pathogens or environmental change. To better understand this trade-off, we characterise the domestication and contemporary genetic [...]

Genomic architecture of resistance and tolerance to Swiss needle cast and Rhabdocline needle cast diseases in Douglas-fir

Pooja Singh, J. Bradley St.Clair, Brandon M. Lind, et al.

Published: 2022-08-10
Subjects: Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics

Understanding the genetic architecture of tolerance and resistance to pathogens is important to monitor and maintain resilient tree populations. Here we investigate the genetic basis of tolerance and resistance and to needle cast disease in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by two fungal pathogens: Swiss needle cast (SNC) caused by Nothophaeocryptopus gaeumannii, and Rhabdocline needle [...]

The role of genomics in the future of ESA decision-making

Brenna Forester, Tanya Lama

Published: 2022-07-14
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides a framework for the protection and recovery of threatened and endangered species and their habitats in the face of anthropogenic threats. Genetic information has played a role in decision-making under the ESA for decades, most commonly informing taxonomy and the designation of distinct population segments, though detection of inbreeding also played [...]

When bacteria are phage playgrounds: interactions between viruses, cells and mobile genetic elements

Eugen Pfeifer, Jorge Moura de Sousa, Marie Touchon, et al.

Published: 2022-07-01
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Microbiology

Studies of viral adaptation have focused on the selective pressures imposed by hosts. However, there is increasing evidence that interactions between viruses, cells, and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are determinant to the success of infections. These interactions are often associated with antagonism and competition, but sometimes involve cooperation or parasitism. They involve mechanism [...]

Evolution and impact of socially transferred materials

Sanja Maria Hakala, Haruna Fujioka, Ornela De Gasperin, et al.

Published: 2022-05-27
Subjects: Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Physiology, Systems Biology

Since the dawn of life, transfers of metabolized material between individuals have led to great innovations of evolution. When metabolized material is transferred from one individual’s body to another (as with sperm, eggs, milk, symbionts), secondary manipulative molecules that induce a physiological response in the receiver are often transferred along with the primary cargo. The bioactive and [...]

Achieving global biodiversity goals by 2050 requires urgent and integrated actions

Paul Leadley, Andrew Gonzalez, Cornelia Krug, et al.

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Human impacts on the Earth’s biosphere are driving the global biodiversity crisis. Governments are preparing to agree on a set of actions intended to halt the loss of biodiversity and put it on a path to recovery by 2050. We provide evidence that the proposed actions can bend the curve for biodiversity, but only if these actions are implemented urgently and in an integrated manner.

Improving species conservation plans under IUCN’s One Plan Approach using quantitative genetic methods

Drew Sauve, Jane Spero, Jessica Steiner, et al.

Published: 2022-02-18
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

Human activities are resulting in altered environmental conditions that are impacting the demography and evolution of species globally. If we wish to prevent anthropogenic extinction and extirpation, we need to improve our ability to restore wild populations. Ex situ populations can be an important tool for species conservation. However, it is difficult to prevent deviations from an optimal [...]

A set of principles and practical suggestions for equitable fieldwork in biology

Valeria Ramírez-Castañeda, Erin P. Westeen, Jeffrey Frederick, et al.

Published: 2022-02-04
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Field biology is an area of research that involves working directly with living organisms in situ through a practice known as “fieldwork.” Conducting fieldwork often requires complex logistical planning within multiregional or multinational teams, interacting with local communities at field sites, and collaborative research led by one or a few of the core team members. However, existing power [...]

Genomic evidence of a functional RH2 opsin in New Zealand parrots and implications for pest control

Stefanie Grosser, Ludovic Dutoit, Yasmin Foster, et al.

Published: 2022-01-25
Subjects: Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

Recent genomic evidence suggest that kea (Nestor notabilis) have a non-functional RH2 opsin gene potentially leading to impaired vision in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In New Zealand, it is standard procedure to add green dye to aerial poison baits used in mammalian predator control operations to deter native birds from eating toxic bait. A visual deficiency could impact how [...]

Detecting Signatures Of Selection In Regulatory Variation

Peter D Price, Daniela H Palmer Droguett, Jessica A Taylor, et al.

Published: 2021-12-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences

A substantial amount of phenotypic diversity results from changes in gene regulation. Understanding how regulatory diversity evolves is therefore a key priority in identifying mechanisms of adaptive change. However, in contrast to powerful models of sequence evolution, we lack a consensus model of regulatory evolution. Furthermore, recent work has shown that many of the comparative approaches [...]

The evolutionary impacts of synonymous mutations

Deepa Agashe

Published: 2021-12-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Molecular Genetics

During the 50 years since the genetic code was cracked, our understanding of the evolutionary consequences of synonymous mutations has undergone a dramatic shift. Synonymous codon changes were initially considered selectively neutral, and as such, exemplars of evolution via genetic drift. However, the pervasive and non-negligible fitness impacts of synonymous mutations are now clear across [...]

Ecology and the Evolution of Sex Chromosomes

Richard Meisel

Published: 2021-12-18
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences

This article reviews and discusses ecological factors that affect sex chromosome evolution. Sex chromosomes are common features of animal genomes, and are often the location where master sex determination genes are found. Many important aspects of sex chromosome evolution are thought to be driven by sex-specific selection pressures, such as sexual antagonism and sexual selection. Sex-specific [...]

search

You can search by:

  • Title
  • Keywords
  • Author Name
  • Author Affiliation