Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Plant Sciences

Rethinking convergence in plant parasitism integrating molecular and population genetic processes

Liming Cai

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

The need for photosynthesis has largely shaped the body plan, physiology, as well as gene repertoire of seed plants. However, shifts to a heterotrophic lifestyle have independently evolved twelve times in more than four thousand parasitic plants. Among these parasites, otherwise rare features have evolved repetitively at both the molecular and phenotypical levels, including reduced vegetative [...]

Evolutionary origins of the Mesoamerican-eastern United States floristic disjunction: current status and future prospects

Gregory W Stull

Published: 2022-11-07
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biology, Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Biogeographic disjunction patterns, where multiple taxonomic groups are shared between isolated geographic areas, represent excellent systems for investigating the historical assembly of modern biotas as well as fundamental biological processes such as speciation, diversification, niche evolution, and evolutionary responses to climate change. Studies on plant genera disjunct across the Northern [...]

Deep reticulation: the long legacy of hybridization in vascular plant evolution

Gregory W Stull, Kasey K Pham, Pamela S Soltis, et al.

Published: 2022-10-26
Subjects: Biodiversity, Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Plant Biology, Plant Sciences

Hybridization has long been recognized as a fundamental evolutionary process in plants, but our understanding of its phylogenetic distribution and biological significance across deep evolutionary scales has been largely obscure—until recently. Over the past decade, genomic and phylogenomic datasets have revealed, perhaps not surprisingly, that hybridization, often associated with polyploidy, has [...]

When and how does photoinhibition matter for plant fitness?

Shan Kothari

Published: 2022-09-13
Subjects: Botany, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology, Plant Biology, Plant Sciences, Population Biology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

The many biophysical factors that shape how plant species sort across environmental gradients may include photoinhibition, which I define broadly as oxidative damage that plants and other phototrophs risk incurring when they absorb excess light energy they cannot safely dissipate. Photoinhibition is seldom explicitly discussed as a potential driver of plant fitness and distributions. Here, I aim [...]

Heterostyly on Japanese Islands

kenta watanabe

Published: 2022-09-07
Subjects: Botany, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Heterostyly is a genetically controlled floral polymorphism that promote outbreeding. Although many studies on heterostyly have been done in Japan, there have been no comprehensive analysis nor review. Here I present the list of heterostyly in the native flora of Japan through reviewing references. By using this list, I tested the difference in occurrence of heterostylous species among subgroups [...]

Maintenance and expansion of genetic and trait variation following domestication in a clonal crop

Oliver White, Manosh Biswas, Wendawek M. Abebe, et al.

Published: 2022-09-01
Subjects: Agriculture, Bioinformatics, Biosecurity, Genetics and Genomics, Genomics, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Clonal propagation enables favourable crop genotypes to be rapidly selected and multiplied. However, the absence of sexual propagation can lead to low genetic diversity and accumulation of deleterious mutations, which may eventually render crops less resilient to pathogens or environmental change. To better understand this trade-off, we characterise the domestication and contemporary genetic [...]

Effect of sampling strategies on the response curves estimated by plant species distribution models

Manuele Bazzichetto, Jonathan Lenoir, Daniele Da Re, et al.

Published: 2022-08-27
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Species distribution models (SDMs) rely on species presence/absence or abundance data and environmental variables to estimate species response curves. Therefore, the quality (and quantity, i.e., sample size) of the data to describe the species distribution determines the quality of the estimate of the species-environment relationship. However, SDMs are seldom fitted on high-quality data collected [...]

A Comparative Physiological Perspective on UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 Signalling in Green Plants

Alexander MacLeod

Published: 2022-07-21
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Evolution, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

The ability for photosynthetic organisms to protect themselves from high levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been a critical for their survival and evolution. To overcome this problem, some of these organisms either occupy habitats where low levels of UV radiation occur or have acquired various receptor mechanisms that protect their nucleic acids, photosynthetic machineries, and their [...]

High tolerance to zinc but limited evidence for local adaptation in the aquatic plant species Lemna gibba/minor

sofia.vamos@uzh.ch, Sofia Julia van Moorsel

Published: 2022-07-05
Subjects: Biodiversity, Botany, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

Duckweed, a widely distributed aquatic plant family, are economically important and have high potential for phytoremediation of polluted water bodies. We collected four Lemna gibba/minor populations from across Switzerland and assessed how their original vs. foreign environments influenced their growth. Additionally, we investigated their response to a metal pollutant (Zn) in both the original [...]

A vegetation carbon isoscape for Australia built by combining continental-scale field surveys with remote sensing

Samantha Munroe, Greg Guerin, Francesca A. McInerney, et al.

Published: 2022-04-26
Subjects: Life Sciences, Plant Biology, Plant Sciences

Context: Maps of C3 and C4 plant abundance and stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) across terrestrial landscapes are valuable tools in ecology to investigate species distribution and carbon exchange. Australia has a predominance of C4-plants, thus monitoring change in C3:C4 cover and δ13C is essential to national management priorities. Objectives: We applied a novel combination of field surveys [...]

Plant families exhibit unique geographic trends in C4 richness and cover

Samantha Munroe, Francesca A. McInerney, Greg Guerin, et al.

Published: 2022-04-19
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Other Plant Sciences, Plant Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Numerous studies have analysed the relationship between C4 plant cover and climate. However, few have examined how different C4 taxa vary in their response to climate, or how environmental factors alter C4:C3 abundance. Here we investigate (a) how proportional C4 plant cover and richness (relative to C3) responds to changes in climate and local environmental factors, and (b) if this response is [...]

The easyclimate R package: easy access to high-resolution daily climate data for Europe

Verónica Cruz-Alonso, Christoph Pucher, Sophia Ratcliffe, et al.

Published: 2022-03-29
Subjects: Life Sciences, Plant Biology, Plant Sciences

In recent decades there has been an increasing demand by ecologists for harmonized climatic data at large spatial scales and spanning long periods. Here we present easyclimate, a software package to obtain daily climatic data at high resolution (0.0083º, ~1 km) with R. The package facilitates the downloading and processing of precipitation, minimum and maximum temperatures for Europe from 1950 to [...]

Plant spectra as integrative measures of plant phenotypes

Shan Kothari, Anna Schweiger

Published: 2022-03-24
Subjects: Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Plant Biology, Plant Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

1. Spectroscopy at the leaf or canopy scales is becoming one of the core tools of plant functional ecology. Remotely sensed reflectance spectra can allow ecologists to infer plant traits and strategies—and the community- or ecosystem-level processes they correlate with—continuously over unprecedented spatial scales. 2. Because of the complex entanglement of structural and chemical factors that [...]

The Global Forest Health Crisis: A Public Good Social Dilemma in Need of International Collective Action

Geoffrey Williams, Matthew D. Ginzel, Zhao Ma, et al.

Published: 2022-03-10
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Behavioral Economics, Biodiversity, Biology, Biosecurity, Botany, Economics, Entomology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Studies, Forest Biology, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, International Relations, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Other Forestry and Forest Sciences, Other Plant Sciences, Pathogenic Microbiology, Plant Biology, Plant Pathology, Plant Sciences, Political Science, Science and Technology Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Society is confronted by interconnected threats to ecological sustainability. Among these is the devastation of forests by destructive non-native pathogens and insects introduced through global trade, leading to the loss of critical ecosystem services and a global forest health crisis. We argue that the forest health crisis is a public good social dilemma and propose a response framework that [...]

Achieving global biodiversity goals by 2050 requires urgent and integrated actions

Paul Leadley, Andrew Gonzalez, Cornelia Krug, et al.

Published: 2022-02-25
Subjects: Agriculture, Animal Sciences, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Genetics and Genomics, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Plant Sciences

Human impacts on the Earth’s biosphere are driving the global biodiversity crisis. Governments are preparing to agree on a set of actions intended to halt the loss of biodiversity and put it on a path to recovery by 2050. We provide evidence that the proposed actions can bend the curve for biodiversity, but only if these actions are implemented urgently and in an integrated manner.

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