Filtering by Subject: Diseases

A minimum data standard for wildlife disease studies

Tess Stevens, Ryan Zimmerman, Greg Albery, et al.

Published: 2024-05-19
Subjects: Animal Diseases, Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Diseases, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Infectious Diseases, Veterinary Medicine, Virology, Virus Diseases

Thousands of scientists and practitioners conduct research on infectious diseases of wildlife. Rapid and comprehensive data sharing is vital to the transparency and actionability of their work, but unfortunately, most efforts designed to publically share these data are focused on pathogen determination and genetic sequence data. Other facets of existing surveillance data – particularly [...]

Solving the “small outbreak problem” in climate epidemiology

Colin J Carlson

Published: 2024-01-04
Subjects: Climate, Diseases, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, Environmental Public Health, Epidemiology, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Parasitic Diseases, Public Health, Virus Diseases

Climate change can cause outbreaks of infectious diseases in unfamiliar locations — but how do we know which unusual outbreaks are the result of climate change? Scientists often hesitate to guess, leaving the task to journalists or the public. All of these audiences would benefit from a clear and consistent framework for thinking about causality, especially in situations where outbreaks are too [...]

Evolution of new variants of SARS-COV-2 during the pandemic: mutation limited or selection limited?

Srashti Bajpei, Milind Watve

Published: 2022-09-23
Subjects: Diseases, Medicine and Health Sciences, Virus Diseases

The recent pandemic caused by SARS-Cov-2 has witnessed an evolving succession of variants of the virus. While the phenomenon of invasion by immunity evading variants is known for other viruses such as influenza, the dynamics of the ecological and evolutionary process in the succession is little known. Since during the Covid-19 pandemic, large scale epidemiological data were collected and made [...]

The Shadow of the Neolithic Revolution on Life Expectancy: A Double-Edged Sword

Raphael Franck, Oded Galor, Omer Moav, et al.

Published: 2022-03-01
Subjects: Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment, Anthropology, Biological and Physical Anthropology, Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities, Diseases, Economic History, Economics, Endocrine System Diseases, Growth and Development, Health Economics, Immune System Diseases, Labor Economics, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Economics, Public Health, Regional Economics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

This research explores the persistent effect of the Neolithic Revolution on the evolution of life expectancy in the course of human history. It advances the hypothesis and establishes empirically that the onset of the Neolithic Revolution and the associated rise in infectious diseases triggered a process of adaptation reducing mortality from infectious diseases while increasing the propensity for [...]

Transgenerational effects of obesogenic diets in rodents: a meta-analysis

Hamza Anwer, Margaret Morris, Daniel W.A. Noble, et al.

Published: 2021-08-02
Subjects: Biology, Diseases, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Nutrition

Obesity is a major health condition that affects millions worldwide. There is an increased interest in understanding the adverse outcomes associated with obesogenic diets. A multitude of studies have investigated the transgenerational impacts of maternal and parental obesogenic diets on subsequent generations of offspring, but results have largely been mixed. We conducted a systematic review [...]

COVID-19 through the One Health lens: adding a missing perspective

Christian Selbach, Maarten P. M. Vanhove, Kim Nørgaard Mouritsen

Published: 2021-03-22
Subjects: Diseases, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Parasitology, Virus Diseases

The One Health concept offers an integrative approach to disease and health at the human-animal-environment interface. It has often been suggested to view the COVID-19 outbreak within this framework to better understand and mitigate this global crisis. Here, we discuss how the evolutionary ecology of host-pathogen systems can add a valuable additional perspective to the debate around SARS-CoV-2 [...]

Liberating host-virus knowledge from biological dark data

Nathan Upham, Jorrit H. Poelen, Deborah Leo Paul, et al.

Published: 2021-01-15
Subjects: Diseases, Epidemiology, International Public Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Organisms, Public Health

Connecting basic data about bats and other potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2 with their ecological context is critical for understanding the emergence and spread of COVID-19. However, when global lockdown started in March 2020, the world’s bat experts were locked out of their research laboratories, which, in turn, locked up large volumes of offline ecological and taxonomic data. Pandemic lockdowns [...]

COVID-19 Outbreak Prediction with Machine Learning

Sina Faizollahzadeh Ardabili, Amir Mosavi, Pedram Ghamisi, et al.

Published: 2020-10-10
Subjects: Computational Engineering, Diseases, Engineering, Health Information Technology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Other Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Health

Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed-decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and they are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of [...]

A call to action: Understanding land use-induced zoonotic spillover to protect environmental, animal, and human health

Raina Plowright, Jamie Reaser, Harvey Locke, et al.

Published: 2020-09-25
Subjects: Animal Diseases, Biodiversity, Biology, Diseases, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Immunity, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Immunology of Infectious Disease, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Parasitic Diseases, Public Health, Systems Biology, Veterinary Medicine

The rapid, global spread and human health impacts of SARS-CoV-2, the agent of COVID-19 disease, demonstrates humanity’s vulnerability to zoonotic disease pandemics. Although anthropogenic land use change is known to be the major driver of zoonotic pathogen spillover from wildlife to human populations, the scientific underpinnings of land use-induced zoonotic spillover have rarely been [...]

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