Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Survival of the luckiest

Sergio Da Silva

Published: 2024-02-22
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Opposite dynamics are behind natural selection and sexual selection. When considering natural and sexual selection separately, the fittest individuals survive. However, when these processes interact, luck often determines the survivor. As a result, chance has a greater impact on evolution.

The impact of acoustic signalling on offspring performance varies between three biparentally caring species

Taina Conrad, Magdalena M. Mair, Julia Müller, et al.

Published: 2024-02-08
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Communication plays a fundamental role in the evolution of any form of cooperative behaviour such as parental care. However, it can be challenging to understand the specific role of certain signals and how they might have evolved into complex communication systems. To investigate what effect a lack of acoustic communication can have on brood care and offspring performance, we silenced parents of [...]

Child and Adolescent Foraging: New Directions in Evolutionary Research

Ilaria Pretelli, Alyssa Crittenden, Edmond Dounias, et al.

Published: 2023-12-21
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Young children and adolescents in subsistence societies forage for a wide range of resources. They often target child-specific foods, they can be very successful foragers, and they share their produce widely within and outside of their nuclear family. At the same time, while foraging they face risky situations and are exposed to diseases that can influence their immune development. However, [...]

Assessing diverse values of nature requires multilingual evidence

Violeta Berdejo-Espinola, Tatsuya Amano

Published: 2023-12-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Extreme events and coupled socio-ecological systems

Easton R White, Sophie Wulfing

Published: 2023-11-21
Subjects: Agricultural and Resource Economics, Behavioral Economics, Demography, Population, and Ecology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Human Ecology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Other Social and Behavioral Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Rare, but potentially impactful, extreme events in socio-ecological systems (SES) can trigger significant consequences. The scarcity of theoretical frameworks for such events in SES is due to data limitations and difficulty in building coupled SES models. We explore the effect of extreme events on coupled socio-ecological systems using two stylized case studies: harvesting of old-growth forests [...]

The Pest Management Attitude scale: a tool for measuring consensus between experts and practitioners in invasion biology

Jacopo Cerri, Emiliano Mori, Elisa Serra, et al.

Published: 2023-11-17
Subjects: Life Sciences, Other Anthropology, Other Psychology, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Biology

Quantifying attitudes towards invasive alien species (IAS) is fundamental to understand the extent to which conservation scientists agree and can collaborate in their management. We tested the Pest Management Scale (PMS), originally invented to quantify attitudes towards invasive alien mammals in New Zealand, as a tool to quantify broader attitudes towards IAS among bioinvasion experts in [...]

Heat stress perception, knowledge levels and health consequences of urban heat in major cities in Bangladesh

Muhammad Mainuddin Patwary, Asma Safia Disha, Dana Sikder, et al.

Published: 2023-11-12
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Urban Studies and Planning

Urban heatwaves are a growing concern, especially in South Asian countries grappling with rapid urbanization and limited resources. While prior studies focused on the biophysical aspects of urban heat islands in this region, there is limited evidence of people’s understanding of urban heat stress and its health consequences. This study aimed to investigate the perceived urban heat risk and [...]

Decomposing social environment effects on eco-evolutionary dynamics: from density regulation to frequency-dependent selection

Yimen Gerardo Araya Ajoy, Myranda Murray, Jonathan Wright, et al.

Published: 2023-11-08
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The density and frequencies of interacting phenotypes create a type of environment which affects both phenotypic selection and population growth. Fluctuations in population density create temporal variation in population mean fitness, driving population dynamics, while fluctuations in phenotypic frequencies create variation in the relative fitness of phenotypes through frequency-dependent [...]

Ratio versus difference optimization in human behavior

Sonali Shinde, Milind watve

Published: 2023-10-27
Subjects: Arts and Humanities, Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Models of optimization have played an important role in the fields of evolution as well as economics. In the classical models of optimization, some tend to maximize the ratio of returns to investment and others tend to maximize the net benefit or the difference between the two. Clarity in the contextual appropriateness of the ratio model versus difference model came very recently. This clarity [...]

Global research priorities for historical ecology to inform conservation

Loren McClenachan, Torben Rick, Ruth H. Thurstan, et al.

Published: 2023-10-27
Subjects: Arts and Humanities, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Historical ecology draws on a broad range of information sources and methods to provide insight into ecological and social change, especially over the past ~12,000 years. While its results are often relevant to conservation and restoration, insights from its diverse disciplines, environments, and geographies have frequently remained siloed or underrepresented, restricting their full potential. [...]

Impacts of exposure to UV radiation and an agricultural pollutant on morphology and behaviour of tadpoles (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis)

Jack Taylor Orford, Hung Tan, Jake M Martin, et al.

Published: 2023-10-24
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate class globally, with many species at risk of extinction. Multiple factors have been implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations, and it has been hypothesised that interactions between these stressors may be responsible for such rapid declines. Increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a result of ozone depletion has been identified as one [...]

Mobilising central bank digital currency to bend the curve of biodiversity loss

Joseph Millard

Published: 2023-10-21
Subjects: Arts and Humanities, Business, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Humanity is at a critical juncture. Despite our efforts to set targets and goals, biodiversity and climate are both changing rapidly, pushing us towards a biosphere our species has not known. To solve this problem one view is that we need transformational change of the economic paradigm, but that might be more an ideal than pragmatic. A new idea could be to take inspiration from recent [...]

Measuring the 3-30-300 Rule to Help Cities Meet Nature Access Thresholds

Matthew Browning, Dexter H Locke, Cecil Konijnendijk, et al.

Published: 2023-07-03
Subjects: Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Epidemiology, Geography, Physical and Environmental Geography, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The 3-30-300 rule offers benchmarks for cities to promote equitable nature access. It dictates that individuals should see three trees from their dwelling, have 30% tree canopy in their neighborhood, and live within 300 meters of a high-quality green space. Implementing this demands thorough measurement, monitoring, and evaluation methods. Seven data and processes exist to assess these [...]

Adaptive parsimony as an evolutionary solution to the equilibrium selection problem

Jean-Baptiste André

Published: 2023-06-30
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Many games, especially repeated games, have multiple Nash equilibria, which limits the predictive power of game theory for understanding animal behavior. In this article, I propose a solution to this problem inspired by the notion of stability by convergence from adaptive dynamics. The multiplicity of equilibria is due to the possibility of strategies that are arbitrary in the sense that they are [...]

Light wavelength and pulsing frequency affect avoidance responses of Canada geese

RYAN B LUNN, Patrice Baumhardt, Bradley Blackwell, et al.

Published: 2023-05-25
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause bird mortality, economic damage, and aviation safety hazards. One proposed solution to increasing the distance at which birds detect and move away from an approaching aircraft, ultimately mitigating the probability of collision, is through onboard lighting systems. Lights in vehicles have been shown to lead to earlier reactions in some bird species but [...]

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