Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Supporting study registration to reduce research waste

Marija Purgar, Paul Glasziou, Tin Klanjscek, et al.

Published: 2024-06-04
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Research suffers from many inefficiencies. These lead to much research being avoidably wasted, with no or limited value to the end user (e.g. an estimated 82-89% of ecological research, and 85% of medical research). Here, we argue that the quality and impact of ecological research could be drastically improved by registration: pre-registration, and registered reports. However, without a [...]

IPDToolkit: An R package for simulation and Bayesian analysis of iterated prisoner’s dilemma game-play under third-party arbitration

Cody Ross, Thomas Fikes, Hillary Lenfesty, et al.

Published: 2024-06-03
Subjects: Anthropology, Political Science, Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Recently, researchers have begun studying the role that third-party arbitration may play in the evolution of cooperation. Using the iterated prisoner’s dilemma (IPD), they show that arbitration can mitigate the negative effects of perception errors on the stability of cooperative strategies. Open questions, both theoretical and empirical, however, remain. To promote research on the role of [...]

Hunter-Gatherer Sociality and the Origins of Human Normative Thinking

Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius

Published: 2024-06-03
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Reconstructing the origin and evolution of culturally transmitted norms and institutions in the hominin lineage since our split from a common ancestry with African apes is a daunting task. By investigating the social structures of extant simple hunter-gatherers, as well as the evidence of extensive social networks and long-distance trade in early modern humans, we believe that regulation of [...]

Light Pollution at Sea: Implications and Potential Hazards of Human Activity for Offshore Bird and Bat Movements in the Greater North Sea

Cormac Walsh, Ommo Hüppop, Thiemo Karwinkel, et al.

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Studies, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Ornithology, Other Animal Sciences, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management, Zoology

Human activity in the North Sea is intensifying, as emerging uses, such as offshore wind farms (OWFs) and liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals, are added to fishing, freight shipping and fossil fuel production as traditional forms of resource exploitation. The volume and scale of these additional installations are projected to increase substantially in the coming decades, which amplifies the need [...]

Factors Influencing Support for Bat Management and Conservation in the Wildland-Urban Interface

Michael Petriello, Catrin Edgeley, Carol Chambers, et al.

Published: 2024-05-13
Subjects: Biodiversity, Environmental Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about bats often underlie social support for bat management and intentions to conserve bats. Effective bat conservation and management hinges on understanding these drivers across contexts. Lands classified as wildland-urban interface (WUI) are rapidly expanding in the USA, increasing the likelihood of human-bat interactions from management practices and [...]

The Value and Urgency of Transportation Forestry

Matthew Browning, Kathleen Wolf, Pamela Murray-Tuite, et al.

Published: 2024-05-06
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

The community and ecological benefits of trees and forests along roadways and other transportation infrastructure are important. Historically, the dialogue surrounding trees in transportation systems has focused on safety and crash reduction. We propose the sub-field of “Transportation Forestry” to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of trees and supporting green [...]

Historic residential segregation impacts biodiversity data availability disparately across the tree of life

Dexter H Locke, Melissa Chapman, Diego Ellis-Soto

Published: 2024-04-23
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Race and Ethnicity, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Urban Studies and Planning

Urbanization alters species ranges and nature’s contributions to people, motivating urban conservation. Residential segregation policies have left an indelible impact on urban environments, greenspaces, and wildlife communities, creating socioeconomic heterogeneity and altering biota. However, the extent to which data sufficiently capture urban biodiversity patterns remains unclear, especially [...]

Leveraging AI to improve evidence synthesis in conservation

Oded Berger-Tal, Bob B M Wong, Carrie Ann Adams, et al.

Published: 2024-04-20
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Systematic evidence syntheses (systematic reviews and maps) summarize knowledge and are used to support decisions and policies in a variety of applied fields, from medicine and public health to biodiversity conservation. However, conducting these exercises in conservation is often expensive and slow, which can impede their use and hamper progress in addressing the biodiversity crisis. With the [...]

Children adjust behavior in novel social environments to reflect local cooperative norms inferred from brief exposure

Kari Britt Schroeder, Peter R Blake, Laura Jean Nelson Darling

Published: 2024-03-29
Subjects: Anthropology, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Stark intergroup variation in prosocial behavior, as elicited with economic experiments, is evident even though humans are highly mobile. Conformity to local norms has been posited to play an integral role in the maintenance of this variation. Experiments suggest that adults indeed rapidly infer pro- and antisocial norms in a new or changed social environment and adjust their behavior to reflect [...]

A framework for conducting research on consumer demand for high-value wildlife products in Asia

Hoai Nam Dang Vu

Published: 2024-03-29
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Managing demand for wildlife products is essential to address the illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade. In certain Asian countries, traditions underpin demand, and the usage of exotic wildlife products, particularly among wealthy consumers, carries minimal societal stigma. To develop effective demand management strategies, research is required to generate insights into consumers and [...]

New directions for Indigenous and Local Knowledge research and application in fisheries science: Lessons from a Systematic Review

Benjamin Lawrence Hopper Jones, Rolando Santos, W. Ryan James, et al.

Published: 2024-03-29
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Social-ecological systems like fisheries provide food, livelihoods, and recreation. However, lack of data and its integration into governance hinders their conservation and management. Stakeholders possess site-specific knowledge crucial for confronting these challenges. There is increasing recognition that Indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) is valuable, but structural differences between ILK [...]

Urban greenspaces benefit both human utility and biodiversity

Nataly G. Miguez, Brittany M. Mason, Jiangxiao Qiu, et al.

Published: 2024-03-13
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Urban greenspaces are essential for both human well-being and biodiversity, with their importance continually growing in the face of increasing urbanization. The dual role of these spaces raises questions about how their planning and management can best serve the diverse needs of both people and biodiversity. Our goal was to quantify the synergies and tradeoffs between human utility and [...]

Evaluating Compatibility between the Key Biodiversity Area Proposal Process and Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities Environmental Priorities with evidence from Canada and Mi'kma'ki (Nova Scotia)

Jeffrey Robert Wall

Published: 2024-02-29
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration, Social and Behavioral Sciences

This report will demonstrate that no meaningful (non-random) compatibility exists between the Key Biodiversity Area proposal process – as it now exists and is being implemented globally and in Canada – and the biocultural priorities of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IP&LC’s)*. It is precisely because it is a global standard that no claim that KBA proposal meaningfully (non-randomly) [...]

Survival of the luckiest

Sergio Da Silva

Published: 2024-02-22
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Opposite dynamics are behind natural selection and sexual selection. When considering natural and sexual selection separately, the fittest individuals survive. However, when these processes interact, luck often determines the survivor. As a result, chance has a greater impact on evolution. Published. Cite as: Da Silva, Sergio. Survival of the Luckiest, International Review of Economics 71 [...]

The impact of acoustic signalling on offspring performance varies between three biparentally caring species

Taina Conrad, Magdalena M. Mair, Julia Müller, et al.

Published: 2024-02-08
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Communication plays a fundamental role in the evolution of any form of cooperative behaviour such as parental care. However, it can be challenging to understand the specific role of certain signals and how they might have evolved into complex communication systems. To investigate what effect a lack of acoustic communication can have on brood care and offspring performance, we silenced parents of [...]

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